How to reanimate the battery of an electric screwdriver at home

The battery is the most short.Lived element of the portable power tool. Its already, of which, is a and, which is often reduced by improper operation. It is not always easy to buy a replacement battery (sometimes impossible), and it is expensive. But in many cases, the battery can be fixed with your own hands and extend the period of its operation.

The battery malfunctions are reduced mainly to the following cases:

To diagnose the battery at home, you can purchase a special device, but in most cases there is enough multimeter and load. Its quality may be:

The first case is inconvenient, since it is difficult to force an electric screwdriver for a long time under a constant load. And measuring and voltage measurements are not easy to do. It is convenient to use incandescent of the required power, but they are not suitable for all cases. The thread resistance depends on the heating, that is, on the current. It is best to apply a set of resistance (from the table cm. Below) that imitates various operating modes of the power tool.

The mode of operation Current, a Equivalent resistance for power voltage
12th century 14th century 18th century
Idling one.2 6.12 Ohm 7.14 Ohm nine.18 Ohm
The average load 4.6 2.3 Ohm 2.3.3.5 Ohms 3.4.5 Ohms
Complete load ten.12 one.1.2 Ohm 1.15.1.4 Ohms 1.5.1.8 Ohm

The desired resistance can be obtained by a parallel connection of resistors so that the total power is no less calculated for a specific mode according to the formula p = ui. So, for the idle mode of a 12-volt tool, an equivalent of 12 watts will be required. Such a resistor can be made up of two parallel ten.Resistant resistors with a resistance of 12.15 Ohms each. For the equivalent that simulates the full load of an electrical screwdriver at 18 volts, a battery with a capacity of 1810 = 180 watts will be required. This will require 18 tenatniki 27 ohms.

This data is characteristic of household screwdrivers. Professional tool consumes currents at times large.

First of all, the battery must try to charge from regular charging. If in reasonable time the tension has not reached the face value, then this battery has one or more faulty cells.

If you have managed to obtain the face value, you can proceed to check for the actual capacity. To do this, you need to load a fully charged battery on a certain resistance (use the light bulbs undesirable, the result will be inaccurate) and control the voltage and discharge time. As soon as the voltage reaches the lower limit, the procedure should be stopped and the timer should be stopped.

Type of battery voltage, valve limit, in
Nickel-cadmium 1.2 1.0
Nickel-metallograt 1.2 1.1
Lithium-ion 3.7 2.7

The actual container is calculated based on the discharge current according to the formula C = it, where:

If the current was not controlled by an ammeter, it must be calculated by dividing the average voltage (between the face value and the lower level) into the load resistance.

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The current account is checked at the largest load current. The element should issue this current, and the voltage should not sag to low values.

Instruments

In this article, which is conditionally divided into three parts, we will consider: the types of batteries that are used in screwdrivers (h (h.1), their possible causes of failure (h.2) and affordable repair methods (h.3).

Repair and replacement of the elements of the battery of an electric screwdriver

A more effective way to repair batteries for electric screwdrivers is to replace the elements that we define as faulty.

Note. By acquiring a new element, make sure that its container and dimensions coincide with native elements.

We also need a soldering iron, a low.Crop flux (preferably an alcohol flux for rosin) and tin. We are not talking about spot welding, since for a one.Time battery repair there is hardly a need to purchase or collect it.

There is nothing complicated in the replacement itself, especially if at least what. Then the experience in soldering is. In the photographs, everything is depicted in sufficient detail, cut off a faulty element, instead we seal a new.

  • When soldering a soldering iron, try to solder quickly, so that the battery does not heat up, t.To. Risk to spoil it;
  • If possible, the connection with the help of native plates, or use the same size copper, this is important because the charging currents are large and with the improper section of the connecting wires they will heat up, respectively, the protection of the termistor will work;
  • In no case do not mix up the plus of the battery with a minus. The connection is consistent, which means that the minus of the previous jar goes on plus a new can, and minus new. The next.

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After new elements have been soldered, it is necessary to align potentials on “banks”, since they are different. We carry out the charge/discharge cycle: set to charge all night, give a day to cool and measure the tension on the elements. If we did everything right, the picture will be approximately like this: on all elements the same indicator of the multimeter, within 1.3V.

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Next, we proceed to the category of the battery, insert the battery into an electric screwdriver and load it “in full”. The main thing is to spare the electric screwdriver itself, otherwise you will have to repair it and it. Bring to a full category. We repeat this procedure twice, t.E. We charge and completely discharge.

It should be noted that the procedure for erasing the “memory effect” should be carried out once every three months. Conducted by analogy with the above training.

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Such a not very cunning procedure will extend the work of your electric screwdriver, at least until he himself has to be changed to a new

What is a screwdriver of a screwdriver

In any models of electric shuruppers, such an important element as the battery looks approximately the same. It is a plastic box, inside of which up to a dozen (and sometimes more) nutrition elements are placed. They are interconnected in a sequential chain and are located in such a way that the findings of the first and last banks in the chain are closed to contacts that provide tools and connect to the charging device.

The battery of an electric screwdriver is a chain of loaded nutrition elements connected in series

The eternal battery for electric screwdriver is made with our own hands.

The battery of a screwdriver of any type has a fairly simple design, which can easily figure out any person, at least a little familiar with the basics of electrical engineering. In addition to power elements in the battery body, it can be located:

  • Thermistor (thermal attewer) to protect the battery cans from overheating during charging and a thermal reptile, which serves to open the charge circuit during overheating;
  • Controller controller payment (only in lithium.Type battery).

Lithium.Type batteries are running a special controller

Depending on the type of nutrition used, the batteries of the screwdriver are the following types:

Fast repairs of the battery of an electric screwdriver (repair)

  • Nickel-cadmium, indicated by Nicd symbols and designed for a rated voltage of 12 V;
  • Nickel-metallhydrid (nimh) with the same nominal voltage as elements of the first type (12 V);
  • Lithium (Li-Ion), the voltage of which, depending on the number of elements used, can be from 14.4 to 36 V.

Different types of batteries provide different nominal voltage and screwdriver power

The first.Type batteries (NICD) are most common in modern tools, primarily due to their lowest cost. Especially often, nickel-cadmium alloy batteries can be found in budget models of screwdrivers. They are not afraid of low temperatures and can be stored in a discharged state without losing their characteristics. Of the disadvantages of such nutrition elements, one can note:

  • The pronounced memory effect, when, with incomplete production of the charge, the battery seems to remember to what size its capacity was used, and in the future it is no longer charged above these parameters;
  • Small capacity and small number of charging and discharge cycles;
  • Exposure to self.Discharge, when an unused charged battery gradually loses the charge;
  • High toxicity when opening a can due to the cadmium battery.

In order for the new battery for a screwdriver to not lose the capacity, the first several times it must be charged for 10-12 hours, even if an indication appears that it has been charged much earlier. In the process of working, it is better to use the battery until the full discharge, and then immediately connect to the charger until complete charging.

Nickel-metallhydrid elements in modern electrical screwdrivers are also often found. They consist of environmentally friendly elements, but are more expensive than nickel-cadmium batteries. They have a lower self.Discharge and the effect of memory and a larger number of charging cycles than that of the NICD elements. But they are afraid of low temperatures and in discharged state also lose their characteristics.

The most expensive are lithium batteries, which, in comparison with the first two types, have noticeable advantages:

  • Have no memory effect;
  • Almost not subject to self.Discharge;
  • Designed for more charging cycles and provide a higher capacity;
  • They have compact dimensions, since a smaller number of power elements (cans) are required to set the desired voltage of the battery.

Each element of the lithium battery has a greater rated voltage, so they are used less than in other types of batteries

Of the shortcomings of the batteries of this type, their short service life should be noted. Three years later, lithium begins to decompose, the battery loses its capacity without the possibility of recovery.

How to disassemble the battery of an electric screwdriver

In general, the batteries of many power tools are built the same. The voltage and charging currents differ, and the device itself is similar. Batkets are packed in the connecting plastic case. The case is fastened with several screws, additional fixation. With plastic latches.

After the shurses have been unscrewed (special forms of screwdriver may be required) the battery does not immediately fall apart. He holds on the latches. We carefully examine it, determining their location. Found latches, crushed slightly plastic in that place, pulled the second part over themselves. No beyond the effort, the latches are plastic, fragile.

How to restore the battery of an electric screwdriver: what is in the case

Some hulls of screwdrivers of the type are “unreasonable”, they are connected by silicone or glued. We carefully remove it, after which we repeat the manipulations with the separation of the body. The restored battery can be glued again or use isolet.

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The design of the battery of an electric screwdriver and the types of “cans

All batteries for screwdrivers, regardless of the country of the manufacturer and brand are arranged the same. Inside the battery, the power elements are installed in a row. The final voltage is created by summing the voltage of each can. Each of them has the same voltage and size. The difference in power.

  • 3 power. For charging and discharge.
  • Manager. It is connected to a thermal attewer, which is built into the battery and protects the charger from overheating.
  • Service. Serves to align the charge in all elements.

Manufacturers equip their products with different batteries with various storage elements. The most common-nickel-cadmium (ni-cd) voltage 1.2 century. They work at low temperatures, are inexpensively, can be stored in a discharged state.

Of the shortcomings, they note:

They are made in third world countries, so production is considered harmful. With constant use, they quickly fail.

There are nickel-metallological (ni-mh) batteries with voltage 1.2 century. Their pluses include:

  • High quality manufacturing;
  • Low “memory effect”;
  • Weak ability to self.Discharge;
  • Significant capacity;
  • The presence of a large number of cycles.

But they are expensive. If they are stored discharged for a long time, they lose part of the characteristics. Cannot work at low temperature for a long time.

Elements of the power in the battery are called “banks”

At lithium-ion batteries (Li-Ion) voltage 3.7 In their advantages:

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To create the desired voltage, you need some batteries, this reduces the weight and size of the battery. There are also disadvantages:

The battery is a direct current source in which electrical energy is obtained as a result of a chemical reaction. He gives it to the chain. When charging, the current flows in the opposite direction, charging the drive.

The capacity of the accumulated energy (a/h) is the main parameter of each battery. This indicator indicates the current strength that the tool gives out for 60 minutes.

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How to redo it with your own hands

In order for an electric screwdriver to work from a network with a voltage of 220 volts, it is necessary to build a power supply that issues at the output of 12, 14, 16 or 18 volts depending on the model of the tool. With the help of the available body of the battery charger, you can make network charging, performing actions in the next sequence.

  • Determine the size of the case. The network unit needs to be made of such a size that it fits inside.
  • Small.Sized sources are usually placed in the case of the electric screwdriver itself. For this, you need to disassemble the battery and remove all the insides. Depending on the model of the tool, the case is collapsible or glued. In the latter version, you will have to open the tool on the seam with a knife.
  • Using labeling, we determine the voltage and current strength. As a rule, manufacturers do not indicate the last parameter, but instead of it is present such as power, or a complete electric load expressed in watts. In this case, the current strength will be equal to the particular from dividing the power into electric voltage.
  • At the next stage, the contacts of the charger must be soldered to the electrical wir. Since the terminals are usually made of brass, and the veins are made of copper, it is difficult to perform this task. For their connection, special acid is used, which treats the brass surface before soldering.
  • The reverse ends of the wire are connected to the exit from the battery. An important point is the observance of polarity.

In order for the power supply to work correctly, you should connect a cable with the implementation of all the rules:

Of course, it would be easier to connect to the network directly using a fork and outlet. However, in this case, the device will refuse to work. Firstly, because it is designed for a constant small voltage, and the network is alternating and large. Secondly, it is safer. Elements for an electric circuit (diodes, resistors, etc. Are required. P.) you can buy, or you can borrow from unnecessary household appliances, for example, from an energy.Saving lamp. It happens that the power supply is more advisable to make completely with your own hands, and sometimes it is better to buy ready.Made.

Homemade block

The easiest way to assemble a charger is to use the case from the native battery, which has become unusable. In this case, for internal filling, either the Chinese power supply for 24 Volta, or some ready-made PSU or a power source of their own assembly, will come in handy. The beginning of any modernization is an electrical circuit. It is not necessary to draw it according to all the rules, it is enough to depict the sequence of connecting parts by hand. This will identify a number of elements necessary for work, and also help to avoid errors.

Alteration of purchased blocks

Similarly, the Chinese device can be built into the battery box and other ready.Made power sources. They can be purchased at any radio component store

It is important that the selected model is designed to work with a network of 220 volts and has a suitable operating voltage at the output. Modernization in this case will be carried out as follows

  • First disassembled the purchased device.
  • Next, the design is redone for the necessary parameters similarly to the reconstruction of the Chinese power source described above. Set the resistance, add resistors or diodes.
  • The length of the connecting wires should be selected based on the dimensions of the battery department of the power tool.
  • Carefully insulate the soldered places.
  • It is better to equip a fee with a radiator for cooling.
  • The transformer is more advisable to place separately.
  • The collected circuit is mounted inside the battery compartment and fixed. For reliability, the board can be glued.
  • Attach an electric cable taking into account polarity. All conductive parts should be isolated in order to avoid a short circuit.
  • In the case, it is necessary to drill several holes. One thing is to the exit of the electric cable, others for the allocation of hot air to ensure circulation and reduce the degree of heating of an electric screwdriver during operation.
  • Upon completion of the work, check the functioning of the device.
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List of necessary tools

The following tools may need to carry out repair work:

  • Multimeter. This device is necessary to measure alternating and constant voltage.
  • Curly and flat screwdrivers. Useful for disassembling the case of an electric screwdriver.
  • Soldering iron. Inexpensive models with a capacity of about 40 watts are suitable for repair.

Additional Information! To use the soldering iron, such consumables as a solder and tin will be needed.

Determination of a malfunction

We figured out the purpose of the structural structural elements, now we will consider how to determine the malfunction, this is.2 repair of the battery of an electric screwdriver. We immediately note that all elements cannot fail at once, and since our chain is consistent, when one element is released, the whole chain does not work. So, our task is to determine where we have the weakest link in the chain.

To do this, we will need a multimeter, and for the second method of searching for a 12V lamp, if your battery for an electric screwdriver is also 12 Voltova. The procedure is as follows:

Note. The difference between the elements in the battery of 0.5. 0.7v is considered significant, this means that the element becomes unusable.

Thus, we found candidates for “resuscitation” or “amputation” and replacement for new elements.

If your electric screwdriver works from a voltage of 12 or 13V, you can search a simpler method. We disassemble a fully charged battery to the contacts “” and “-” we connect a 12 voluntary lamp. The lamp will be a load and will discharge the battery. Next, we take measurements on the elements of the battery, where the voltage drop is most strongly, there is a weak link.

There are other ways, instead of a lamp, you can choose resistance, but for this the basics of electrical engineering are already needed, and it is doubtful that the resistor with the necessary resistance was at hand.

Other malfunctions are very rare. For example, the loss of contact at the rations of batteries or power contacts of the block, failure of the termistor. This problem is more inherent in fakes. In view of the rarity, we will not focus on, we limit ourselves to the elements of the battery.

We figured out the “problem” elements, it is necessary to repair. How to repair a battery of an electric screwdriver? In general, 2 ways are available for repair, so to speak. This is the restoration and replacement of the elements that have become unusable.

How long can you store batteries without recharging?

As can be seen from the above information from manufacturers, you need to recharge long.Term batteries every six months.

But since the instructions are given universal, this rule also affected lithium-ion batteries. It seems that with their extremely low self.Discharge, storage of such batteries can be carried out without recharging and several years. Unless of course they were completely planted before storage.

And here one more question arises: how can accumulators be stored for years in warehouses before buying the end consumer and at the same time not to deteriorate?

The answer can be logically removed from all the same operating instructions. Manufacturers write that the new battery must be kept for about 10 hours on charging so that it gains the right container (as Dewalt writes), or he needs to go through five cycles of the charge-discharge (so, for example, writes Makita). This may mean that before the first charge, the batteries are still in such, let’s say, an “underdeveloped” state, when they can be stored for a long time and not deteriorate. Which was actually confirmed by my personal, including experience, when I sold people an electric screwdriver released two or three years ago, and then after a few years I heard flattering reviews from these customers about the work of the equipment sold by him.

But it is worth only to bring them to a state of full capacity, they begin to demand recharging every 6 months.

  • Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metallhydrid batteries must be fully charged if the shelf life is less than 30 days, and leave them with a charge of 30-50% of the total capacity if the shelf life is more than 30 days, while they should be reloaded every six months of long-term storage ;
  • With lithium-ion batteries you can do the same procedures, but, it seems, if this is not adhered to, then nothing terrible will happen to them, the main thing is not to leave them for long-term storage of completely planted.

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Well, I hope I managed to clarify in this matter. Thanks for your attention and until new meetings!

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