Every man should have such a device in his arsenal as an electric screwdriver. It allows you to perform a wide variety of repair and construction work. However, for all the popularity of electric screwdriver, not everyone knows about its device. In fact, there are not so many elements here. The device of electric screwdriver is as follows: planetary gearbox, direct current engine, load limiter, battery, speed control button. The list of devices can be finished on this. In fact, there can be more, but the standard equipment always includes only these five types.
It is this node that is the main one in electrical screwdriver. Execution mainly standard. DC engine is a cylinder, inside which magnets are located in a circle. The anchor of this motor is kept on special supports, which are most often made from brass. In the grooves of this anchor, engine windings are laid, which are made from a material having high magnetic permeability. The material of the anchor body itself is steel. By an equal number of turns, the winding has access to collector plates. Engine brushes, which are made for the most part from graphite and metal, touch the surface of the anchor in its tail.
In order for the fixation to be reliable, the brushes must be pressed. They have a special mechanism. For pressing, spring.Loaded plates are used. They allow the elements of the design not to leave their rightful place, but at the same time they can move along their vertical axis. This significantly reduces the wear of the mechanism. If you look at the diagram of a permanent engine, you can find that the voltage is supplied exclusively on the brushes themselves. In this case, the direction of rotation of the motor directly depends on the polarity of the applied voltage.
Naturally, this is a primitive device, but this knowledge is enough to carry out regular repair of the motor. Most often, windings fail in it. They can simply burn from overloads, so you need to always ensure that the equipment does not work at the limit of capabilities.
Planetary gearbox: Features
This is another very important mechanism in the operation of an electric screwdriver. It is always made in a separate building. This mechanism consists of the following parts: solar gear, ring gear, satellite and drive. Only four components that can fail as a result of operation. Most often, inexpensive screwdrivers consist of gearbox elements that are made of plastic. Expensive models are made of metal. The second option is preferable, since it only allows you to save the tool for many years in operation.
Not all gearboxes are done the same. Each manufacturer has its own secrets of skill. In order to repair the assembly, it is necessary to clarify in accordance with the scheme the location of each individual element.
The ring gear is considered the main detail. It has a cylindrical shape. It has teeth along the circumference, along which satellites move. They are installed on the pin pins. There is a sunny gear between the satellites of the first.
The first drive at the opposite end has a second solar gear.
She, of course, is attached to the second driver. As clear, the device is quite simple, if not to say that a primitive. Such a planetary gearbox is taken as a basis by manufacturers, since it is both reliable and has a simple assembly. When repairing, you can eliminate problems with your own.
If we are talking about a gearbox that has two steps, then the second drive is attached to the shaft hard. This refers to the shaft on which the cartridge is installed. It turns out a kind of sandwich, which consists of two drove and satellites. This whole mechanism is located inside the main gear. It is worth noting the fact that the ring gear itself is attached hard in the case. For this, special latches or protrusions can be used, which are located on the sides. While the protrusions rest on special balls, which are located around the circle. They, in turn, are installed on an elastic ring.
Tool Review. Makita Collated Screw Gun. DFR450
The ring is always springy with the help of a load restriction mechanism. The force of the spring can always change due to the load that acts on the device. Each planetary gearbox has a simple structure that does not affect its operation in any way. As clear, everyone can repair the mechanism with their own hands. This requires only a little skill and knowledge of locksmithing. This excellent solution for an electric screwdriver has been developed for a long time. Other gearboxes were used before, but in the end, almost all manufacturers switched precisely to the planetary version of the mechanism, which allows the screwdriver to work in almost any conditions without any significant overload.
It is worth talking about the work of the mechanism itself. The solar gear in it drives all the satellites in the circle of the ring main gear. As a result
The purpose of all parts and assemblies of the tool. As they are called
If an electric screwdriver has broken down, then before repairing it, you need to figure out what specific detail was out of order. To find out the malfunction on your own, you need to understand the purpose of each node and its constructive parameters.
- Start button. It is with it that the tool begins with it. This mechanism performs two options. Includes a power circuit, that is, it supplies voltage to an electric motor, and also regulates the number of rotation revolutions. The stronger the press press, the greater the speed the cartridge will rotate. As a revolution regulator, an electronic PWM generator is used, which is installed on the board. When you press the button, the contact of the board is moving. A field transistor is used as a contact, which plays the role of a rotation speed regulator
- Electric motor. In portable instruments, single.Phase electric motors of direct current of the collector type are used. The advantages of these units include high reliability and ease of maintenance. The electric motor consists of magnets (play the role of a stator), anchor and brushes. The use of magnets significantly reduces the cost of the cost of the unit
- Reverse. This option is implemented by changing polarity on terminals. In order for the user to do not perform a change in polarity manually, crack contacts are used in the tool design in the form of a switch. This switch is located near the Start button
- A gearbox is a set of gears, due to which an increase in the moment of rotation of the cartridge or a decrease in speed occurs. Shuriks use two types of gearboxes. Planetary and classic. Classical are similar to those that are installed on drifts, only in screwdrivers are very rare. Planetary gearboxes consisting of ring (intermediate) and solar gears are more popular, as well as satellites. The solar gear is driven into effect from the engine shaft. Satellites are given from its rotation in motion, conveying the torque to the ring gear. Depending on the number of speeds, planetary gearboxes can be two.Stage or three.Stage. The more speeds, the more expensive the tool will cost
- Effort regulator. Usually 16 positions of effort are used, but there are also such models that have more. The possibility of screwing screws into a tree depends on the size of the effort. If you need to screw the screwdriver into drywall or other soft materials, then a big effort is not required for this, so the regulator can be installed in position from 1 to 7
- Cartridge. The mechanism has a simple principle of operation. Consists of three fists that reliably fix the installed nozzles. The advantage of fast.Sounding devices is a high speed change
- Case. Plastic shock.Resistant structure, inside which all components are located. To repair the device, you need to disassemble the case. For this, manufacturers produce houses from two parts connected using screws
- Battery-manufacturers produce two types of portable batteries with filling from nickel-cadmium and lithium-ion (as on mobile phones). The lithium-ionic ones are durable and more reliable, but they cost 3-4 times more than tools with nickel-cadmium batteries. Typically, two nickel-cadmium batteries are equipped with an electric screwdriver, which is associated with a short service life
It is interesting! If there are batteries that have a solid structure of the case, then this means that they are not intended for independent repair.
If an electric screwdriver broke, then it is not difficult to repair it at home if you only find a breakdown. Frequent problems of malfunctions of screwdrivers include failure of batteries, the replacement of which can cause some difficulties. Consider the mechanical and electrical malfunctions, as well as the features of their elimination on their own.
Dismantling of electric screwdriver “Makita
To disassemble an electric screwdriver, a cross screwdriver and a little personal time will need you for you. To disassemble the electric screwdriver is one hundred percent, it is required:
- Unscrew the screw screws;
- Remove the composite mechanism of the launch button;
- Remove the electric motor together with the gearbox;
- Disconnect the gearbox from the motor, promoting the bolts consolidating them.
To disassemble the battery of an electric screwdriver, it is necessary to promote the bolts connecting the body, to differently divide the joints of the case on the adhesive base using a soldering iron. Snutri batteries are several nickel-cadmium batteries having a certain container and loading charge. If the battery repair passage requires their change to new.
Electric screwdriver “Makita
Description, general information
Makita company produces various power tools, among which there are screwdrivers. The company began its history in the beginning of the 20th century, and to this day it continues to delight consumers with its high quality goods. Let’s look at the general features and characteristics of the models of this company.
Makita screwdrivers are very powerful. The average speed rate for various models is about 2300 rpm, which is a good indicator compared to other brands. The weight of most tool models lies in the range of 1.5 kg. Its small mass indicates that such a tool will work comfortably. The manufacturer also took care of the convenience of working in poorly lit rooms, making the majority of models backlight by LEDs. Separately, it is worth highlighting the type of handle to keep these tools on the weight. As a rule, they are made by rubberized, and therefore it is convenient to keep them in the brush, respectively, the workflow is much easier.
The disadvantage of these screwdrivers is the strong vibration of the handle during operation, as well as their short.Lived batteries
In addition, the price of the products of this company is quite high, which is important for the domestic consumer
Consider the device of an electric screwdriver on a particular model 6271d. We present the diagram of this model in the figure below.
The diagram shows:
- Switching lever
- The hub of the case
- Branded plate
- Right switching lever
- Start button
- Contact terminal
- Fasted cartridge
- Reducer assembly
- Electric motor
- The hub of the case
- Charged knot
Modern electric screwdriver is a high.Tech device. Important structural elements:
- Removable battery
- Rubbed handle handle
- Powerful electric motor
- Metal planetary gearbox
- Smooth start button
- The reverse switch button
- Twisting control regulator
These are the main components of the design of the electrical screwdriver, which are included in the basic package of any model of electrical screwdriver.
Dismantling of electric screwdriver “Makita“
To disassemble an electric screwdriver, you need a cross screwdriver and a little personal time. To disassemble the electric screwdriver completely, you need:
- Unscrew the screw screws;
- Remove the composite mechanism of the start button;
- Remove the electric motor with the gearbox;
- Disconnect the gearbox from the engine, promoting the bolts consolidating them.
To disassemble the battery of an electric screwdriver, you need to spin the bolts connecting the housing, or divide the joints of the body on a glue basis using a soldering iron. Inside the battery there are several nickel-cadmium batteries having a certain container and loading charge. In the case of repairing the battery, they are required to replace them with new.
Makita XRF92 vs. XSF04
The cartridge changes using a screwdriver and a hexagonal key. First, you promote the fastener screw in the cartridge with a screwdriver, rotating it clockwise. Then the hexagon is inserted, the reverse button is turned on, clamped, and then the cartridge is easy.
Quick.Packed cartridge “Makita
Such a cartridge is used for a clip of bats with a cylindrical shank. This cartridge distinguishes the ease of installation. It is installed literally in one movement of the hand. Used for drills with a diameter of one to ten millimeters. This is a mobile structure in the tool, so it often breaks. To disassemble it, you need to read the tips described at the beginning of the article on disassembling the cartridge using a hexagonal key and a crossroads. The price of this product is about 20 at. E.
The material of this article was voluminous. Here we described all the possible problems that arise during the operation of the Makita screwdrivers, told how to eliminate them on their own, and spoke separately about different structural elements that form the basis of any electric screwdriver. The materials of the article include the diagrams of the gearbox and the general device of the electrical screwdriver. We hope that the information will be useful to you.
Change of “Reducer of an electric screwdriver. (Replaceement Gear Screwdriver on Makita 8280d)
When replacing the gearbox node, the cartridge was removed and the case was cleaned from the inside. I hope this video was fascinating for you.
The cartridge changes using a screwdriver and a hexagonal key. At first, you unwind the fastener screw in the cartridge with a screwdriver, rotating it clockwise. Then the hexagon is inserted, the reverse button is cut, clamped, and later the cartridge is simply amenable.
We study the power tool
The next step towards how to determine the fake Makita is the study of an electric tool.
On each device there is an information nameplate. This is a sign with data. The copy is poorly made, has a different font, errors in words, blossom, blurry paint, as well as other signs of poor copying. The original nameplate is made in the form of a metal insert. Some copies have a paper sticker.
The original has an inscription Makita more dull color. While the fake straight cuts the eyes with bright red. Now regarding the markings:
- On real nameplate, the serial number of the device is located near the model brand. In fake, location of the production number below the table;
- In genuine Makita devices, the table contains markings for use;
- The Japanese manufacturer on original tools is indicated so. Makita Corporation Anji, Aichi, Made in P.R.C. In fakes, the last inscription is absent, or has other letters. China, Malaysia.
As a manufacturer, they always write something like this. Makita Corporation Anji, Aichi, Made in P.R.C. If you see another name, then leave the store. It’s a copy. Just keep in mind that the manufacturer may change.
Now on the market you can find “gray” models of electrical appliances. They are original, but not all labeling is present on them. The main difference is that such Makita tools are imported into the country illegally. Even in spite of their authenticity, these models are not supported by the manufacturer. Therefore, there will be no warranty repair.
A little about how to redo the battery from cadmium to lithium and who needs it
Let’s talk about how to redo the battery itself from one type of batteries to another. There are many videos on this topic on the Internet, which speaks a lot about what advantages there are from what lithium is in an electric screwdriver. However, if you do not use the tool intensively and constantly, there is absolutely no meaning in the lithium battery. Lithium-ion batteries have the property of faster “aging” than cadmium, and simply will not have time to develop their resource under conditions if the tool is used from case to case to case.
Alteration of the battery of an electric screwdriver using lithium battery may be necessary for professional masters who use the tool daily and need powerful power sources. Of course, with a great desire, you can solder the battery into lithium, but whether it will be advisable. To solve only you. Read more about which batteries are better for electric screwdriver →
Thus, you can not only disassemble the battery of any electric screwdriver, but also solder one from two ligaments that will last as long as possible, and you do not have to buy a new battery in the near future.
The work of the converted battery, provided that correctly soldered elements will be no worse. The main thing is to treat the process with patience and maximum attentiveness, so that at the first experience, bring the matter to the end with minimal losses and solder everything correctly. If it turns out to collect everything, this will become an additional incentive in order to continue to continue your experiments in the field of electronics. Gather the battery yourself once. And you can save on the purchase of new batteries for an electric screwdriver in the future.
How to repair a battery of an electric screwdriver
The screwdrivers working from the battery are also very susceptible to wear of the battery. This happens over time even with proper use. If you do not follow the operating rules, the battery will stop holding the charge very quickly. And in this situation there are two ways: to purchase a new battery or try to repair the battery of the Makita electric screwdriver with your own hands.
The second option will require spending a certain amount of time and effort, and the presence of special elements is also necessary.
The battery of an electric screwdriver is a set of a certain number of special nutrient cans that is soldered to the charge controller and make up a holistic structure.
The corresponding nutrients can be found in handlies or laptops. There are also such banks in some quantity. In laptops, 6 cans are usually used, and 4 in shoes. 4. But the quantity may be different and depends on the battery capacity.
If the master has unnecessary elements of such lithium batteries, then they can be used to fix the battery of an electric screwdriver.
Dismantling of the battery
First of all, it is necessary to disassemble the battery of the electric screwdriver Makita. To do this, it is disconnected from an electric screwdriver, and then all the screws are removed from it. The battery body opens and you can see the design of the element itself. There will be 10 cans soldered to each other and soldered to the power controller.
It is necessary to disconnect the banks from the board. For this, a drill with a special nozzle is used.
Disconnecting cans from the board
Using a bourgeois with a disk nozzle, banks are drained from the board. The connections of each contact with the controller are sequentially removed, as well as the elements are disconnected from the general frame.
It is necessary to do this rather accurately so as not to damage the board itself, but sufficiently intensely, for complete disconnection.
Soldering new cans
Immediately after the exemption of the frame and the board from old nutrient elements, new ones can be attached to them. Before soldering, it is recommended to strictly clean the surfaces on banks and on the board of the remains of the last soldering. This will achieve better contact for a long time.
Now all new banks from other devices are placed in the appropriate places on the frame and in turn are soldered to the power controller. It is recommended to do this with a thick nozzle on a soldering iron, since there will be a lot of solder. The contact should be very reliable and have a large area of contact.
After consistent assembly, it is recommended to wrap the entire structure in special paper and place back in the case. Then the battery is assembled again and closes with a lid, which is attached to the screws.
Before use, the battery must be recharged at a special station until a full capacity, and only then connect it to a screwdriver for checking. If everything is done correctly, the battery will again become working.
Banks for replacement can be removed from other batteries or bought separately. The cost of them is quite decent, but still manual replacement will cost much cheaper than buying a new battery.