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How to breed a wood saw properly

The main cutting element of any manual saw is a series of teeth cut on the canvas and representing cutters in the form of wedges. The wood, in the manufacture of all kinds of products from it, is sawn along, across and at an angle θ to its fibers, in this regard, transverse, longitudinal sawing and sawing at an angle to its fibers are distinguished and, in each case, the appropriate type of saw is used, which differs from other forms teeth.

During transverse sawing, transverse saws are used, the cutting edges of the teeth of which, when moving in wood, is interrupted by its fibers as a knife and form a cut. The longitudinal sawing differs from the transverse in that the direction of movement of the saw parallel to wood fibers. The front edges of the teeth of the longitudinal drank string the wood, like knives in the shirts, and, deepening, form a cut. When sawing wood at an angle θ to its fibers, universal (mixed) saws with teeth, which are an intermediate shape of the teeth of transverse and longitudinal saws are used.

Sharpening of the saw

Sharpening of teeth drank. In its kind art, requiring fidelity of hands, good eye, attention. It is not difficult to learn this matter, it is necessary to have a desire and clearly adhere to the following rules:

  • The saw canvas must be rigidly fixed in a special device made of wood, which is also steadily installed on a well.Lit desktop. Sharpening of teeth drank on stools or knees does not give a satisfactory result.
  • You should use a personal file, followed by stripping the sharpened faces of the teeth with velvet (with a small notch) or a file. It is desirable that the file is new, sharp and with a mounted handle. If at the right time it was not the same, then you can use a used, but necessarily cleaned with a steel brush and grated with wood coal, so that the file does not clog and does not stupor. When sharpening the tooth, the file should cling to its metal and remove its layer depending on the strength of pressure. And if it slides down the tooth without removing the metal, then the teeth of the saw are rolled or the file is Istrut. In this case, it is necessary to repeat the sharpening with a new file. If in this case it slides along the tooth, then it remains to take another saw.
  • The handle of the file is clamped with the right hand, and its end holds the end with his left hand and the file is directed to the teeth of the saw. About the work of the file, depending on the type of saw, is described below.
  • The pressure of the file on the teeth should be smooth and uniform and only one way from itself. When the file is returned to the starting position, he should not touch the teeth.
  • We must try to grind the metal from the faces of the teeth of the minimum of the same thickness, the lead of the file is the same number of times with the same pressure, which allows you to maintain the values ​​of the angles, the step and height of the teeth after sharpening.
  • On the faces of the tooth from the side of the file of the file, burrs are formed, which reduce the sharpness of the tooth, and if you do not remove it, then during the operation of the saw they are painted, and the teeth are significantly blunt. To remove the burrs, the edges of the teeth are wetted with a file with a velvet notch and the burrs from the side faces with a wet donkey are removed.
  • After sharpening the teeth, it is necessary to check their sharpness. Look at the tip of the needles and the edge of the razor blade: they, sharpened, do not shine in the light. And if they lick them, then rounded surfaces appear on the tip of the needles and on the edge of the blade, which reflecting the light, sparkle well. On this principle, a check of the quality of sharpening of teeth saws was built. For this, the saw is placed in front of the eyes and examine its teeth along the canvas. If their cutting edges and peaks do not shine, then the teeth of the saw are saturatedly stumbled, and if some of the teeth with brilliance (often it happens), then they need to be undermined by a file with a velvet notch, remove the burrs and again check the reflection of the light with their edges and peaks.

Cross saws. The teeth of the transverse saws are pulled, using a trihedral file with a fine notch with an angle at a top of 60 °.

24 teeth vs. 60 teeth Saw Blades

breed, wood, teeth

To sharpen the teeth, the saw is clamped in a special device, which allows you to install its canvas at an angle of 45-50 ° to the plane of the desktop. The file is carried out parallel to the desktop at an angle of 60-75 ° to the saw canvas and thus, in the first tooth, the left line is A1A2V2V2.

Sharpen the teeth of the saw in several tricks. First, they pass the files along the left edges of the odd teeth located in the far row, setting up hands on the same movement. Then they pass a file on the right faces of the same odd teeth, completing the sharpening of the main cutting edges with very sharp peaks. After the sharpening of the odd teeth is completed, the saw canvas in the solid device turn over and thus sharpen even teeth, which ended up in the far row. When sharpening the teeth of transverse saws, it is necessary to carefully monitor that the sharp main cutting edges with the dual-sided angle φ = 60-75 °, a short cutting edge and a sharp peak are obtained in each tooth.

Longitudinal saws. The teeth of the longitudinal drank in which the angle π

Ring saw: instrument capabilities

During the repair process, something has to be sawed not only along a straight-line or curved trajectory, but also on a closed ring. In particular, quite often you have to cut round holes for installing sockets and switches in concrete, drywall or wood. The ring saw copes with this task perfectly, which will be discussed in this article. Ring saw: wood and drywall are not a problem, yes, for drywall and wood, a ring saw of one type is used. Outwardly it resembles a thin.Walled tube, at the end of which there are standard teeth for a hacksaw. The ring saw on wood or drywall is made in two versions. In both cases these are sets that allow you to cut holes with a diameter of 20 to 60mm. Some of these sets are a set of interchangeable “cups”, which are installed on a special end.Leaf inside. A cup of such a set is attached to the ending with a wide compression nut.

And in the second set, the tube changes, which, thanks to special slots, is easily installed on a special goal, worn on the drill. The drill is necessary for centering the drilled hole and it is present in the ring saws of literally each type. Both types of these saws have some operational differences. The first option, as a rule, is made of relatively thick steel and serves much longer than the second version of the ring saw for drywall, having a slot through its entire length. The second option is disposable devices that are designed to work at one object. Both crown on drywall or wood is quite simple to use. They are installed on a drill or electric screwdriver and, inherently, work as an ordinary drill.

See also  Sharpening of carbide-tipped circular saws

Their design has one small nuance. The diameters of the saw are made knowingly less than, for example, the planting diameter of the socket for drywall. This is done so that the socket is tightly entered into the hole and does not stagger in it.

On the other hand, if such a socket has to be mounted in a wooden wall (lining or OSB), then the hole obtained by means of a ring saw has to be finalized by an electric jigsaw. This moment should be taken into account. Perhaps cutting the hole in the tree immediately with a jigsaw will look much more attractive.

How to drill concrete and brick?

It is hard to call the concrete crown on concrete for a ring saw, since there is very little common between them. Except that a tubular structure with a drill in the center.

Instead of standard cutting teeth for a saw, such a crown is equipped with carbide winning attacks, which are able to withstand friction and a blow created by a peorator.

There is no need to talk about sets here, since under a different diameter of the holes you have to purchase a separate tool of this type.

A crown for drilling holes in concrete, despite its power and the ability to crush concrete walls, is not able to withstand reinforcement. When it gets on reinforcement, which happens almost every time in the process of drilling, she fly off attacks and, by and large, an expensive tool becomes hopelessly spoiled. I do not want to say that this is a completely useless tool. It should simply be understood that in the process of work, getting on the reinforcement, the crown should be removed and instead of it to install a regular peak on the peoporator, which is completed and completed the work that has begun. Subsequently, the reinforcement can either be bent with a hammer or cut a corner grinder.

Diamond ring saw

The diamond ring saw could be called universal if it really coped with all the materials in a row. But this is not so. It is intended exclusively for cutting steel and concrete. Wood, drywall and many other soft materials clog the edges of diamonds, as a result of which they lose their ability to cut even metal with concrete. A paradox, but the same thing happens when using diamond crowns for cutting holes in asbestos, cipher and aerated concrete concrete concrete. Diamond crowns are sold in stores with sets. Exactly the same as the annular saws for wood and drywall. That is, a large puck with a drill in the middle (a drill in such crowns has a winning attack) and pieces of seven or eight replaceable annular saws.

There are several rules that I am adhering to adhere to, before going to the store for the instrument or spare parts:

  • 1). Make a list of purchases so that nothing to forget and not buy too much.
  • 2). Take a picture of the repaired node or spare part assembly, a nameplate with marking if there is. It’s easier to explain with the seller, showed the photo and he will immediately understand you.
  • 3). Remove the exact dimensions, do not trust “measurements by eye”.
  • 4). Do not buy “for future use”, such purchases are usually dusting in the pantry or garage, and the case of a repeated breakdown cannot be found and you have to buy again.
  • 5). Do not buy used tools or spare parts, no one knows how much they are enough and who knows, perhaps the “non.Lying cheap” electric drill was stolen. As you know, for free. Only in the mousetrap.

If there are doubts or you need a consultation, call us 8922-722-91-00 or ask a question in our group. We will always help, do not take money for consultation.

Ring saw on wood. We will select any size

Some of the ring saw on wood is unreasonably called the end cutter. The processing of the material occurs almost similarly, and in appearance the tools are similar. The equipment considered, although it leaves a lot of shavings, allows, using the usual power tool, to receive clean through holes in the tree.

Wood ring saw device

The saw canvas of such a saw is a cutting crown, the number and profile of the teeth of which depends on the strength and relative moisture of the wood. Most of the manufacturers of ring saws on wood produces crowns in sets, which allows you to use the tool for processing drywall and even metal.

The saw cloth itself consists of two sections: cutting head and shank. For the manufacture of bimetallic cutting heads, which are designed for wood work, high.Quality instrumental steel of the 11XF, CHS or 9XVG type is used, while the cutting crown for metal work can be from a solid alloy.

The shank is made of hardened structural steel type 45 or 40x, and is soldered to the cutting part with a high.Resistant brass alloy. On the opposite side, the shank is equipped with a landing place under the electrode cartridge.

For the usual fixation tool, the end part of the shank is hexhed, and in new models it is integrated under a quick.And.Packed cartridge.

Since a significant amount of shavings is formed during the processing of wood with a ring saw, a spring is provided in the design of the tool, with which the chips stuck between the teeth are removed outside.

The technological parameters of the ring saw on wood are:

  • The height of the working part of the crown, on which the depth of the volume of wood depends, removed by a saw in one pass. By default it is standard and equal to 40 mm. Depending on the hardness and fibrousness of wood, this allows the cavities to receive a depth of up to 35 38 mm.
  • External diameter of the cutting part of the crown. Sets include crows with dimensions from 30 mm to 150 mm. The installation capabilities are determined by the engine power and the possibility of regulating the speed number: for ring saws on wood with a diameter of more than 110 mm, the number of revolutions of the drill must be reduced to a minimum, or use a special stand.
  • The profile of the teeth, which depends on the processed material and the principle of action of the nozzle. There are reverse saws that allow you to change the direction of their rotation. Such saws are more convenient for the master, since they make it possible to hold the drill during both the left and right hand. However, during prolonged work, they heat up more, and in the end begin not to cut a tree, but to rip off a surface layer from it, worsening the quality of processing. The tooth profile in such saws has in terms of the type of triangle expanding to the base.

breed, wood, teeth

Features of operation

Due to the high area of ​​contact of the saw with wood, the tool is heated when working. Therefore, long.Term non.Stop work of a drill with a ring saw on a tree is impossible (unless, of course, to adapt the system of air or water cooling).

Ring saws are often called typewritten, which is explained by the composite performance of the tool. For such equipment, the method of connecting the shank with the cutting part is very important. Possible options:

  • Flat attack. In this case, the ring saw on the tree will withstand the minimum possible shift loads, and it should be used for a short time, removing the minimum amount of material for the passage. The diameter of the nozzles usually does not exceed 30 mm.
  • Attacker with the landing of the shank in the landing part of the crown. The reliability of fixation increases, so such saws are produced by increased diameter. Up to 127 mm, and they can work longer.
  • The same as in the previous case, but the shank is additionally based on the bort at the upper part of the crown. This option is implemented in the designs of annular saws of 150 mm or more (the saws are known with a diameter of up to 210 mm), since the thermal expansion of the material during the operation of the saw will not cause deformation of the setting tool.

In the practice of their use, ring saws on wood are installed in special glasses of a revolver type, which, when turning in the cartridge, are put on a fishing line for a trimmer to process the crown of the required diameter.

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To ensure fixation, a uniform nut is used, and to centering the drilled hole. The drill that is included in the set of any set.

The drill protrudes beyond the working surface of the teeth, and this is guaranteed the required alignment of obtaining a deaf hole.

However, this design requires a change in the number of revolutions of the rampart: at the initial stage, when working, the need for the moment is small, so the number of revolutions is more rational to increase. Then, when the teeth of a circular saw on wood come into effect, the load increases sharply, so the speed of the drill is reduced.

Recommended shaft rotation speeds for work with medium (75 85%) moisture: moisture:

  • For preliminary sparkling-1750 2000 min-1;
  • To obtain a deaf hole-750 1000 min-1;
  • For refinement of the resulting hole, its zenkovka and other similar operations-1000 1500 min-1.

How to choose the right ring on wood?

Since when working the tool under consideration, significant shifting efforts constantly arise, preference should be given to ring saws, the design of which provides for decisions that provide the necessary accuracy of work. So, the presence on the supporting surface of the shank of centering pins made of hardened steel provides additional centering of the crown. In this case, the height of the pin should be at least two of its diameters.

Sharpening of wood on wood in different ways

In order to sharpen the wood saw, a small corner grinder and a flat file with a durable handle will be needed in small sizes. Dilute the teeth of the saw to the sides, you can use the same file, but in order to quickly sharpen the saw on wood with your own hands, you can use a corner grinder.

How to breed a wood saw

The divorce of teeth on the saw is necessary in order to work with this wood tool could be as simple, easy and convenient as possible. To do this, the saw falls on a flat flat surface, after which, with the help of a flat file, the teeth of saws are divorced in one and the other, depending on their direction. Too much divorce of wood on wood should not be done, 3-4 millimeters are enough.

Further, with the help of the same flat file, you can also sharpen the saw on wood. To do this, the saw canvas is left in the same position as with a saw’s divorce, and then with the help of a file there is a sharpening of its teeth. At first, one side of the teeth of the saw is neatly hidden, after which you can start sharpening the opposite side of the teeth.

breed, wood, teeth

How to sharpen a corner grinder

You can sharpen a saw much faster using a file for these purposes, and a small corner grinder with a installed metal disk. However, in this option, it is worth knowing that you can damage the teeth of the saw on the tree to such an extent that the tool will completely become unusable, and it will not be used to use it further.

How to sharpen a saw a file

So, in order to sharpen the saw on a wood with a corner grinder, you should clamp the saw in a vise or clamps to a solid base. Then, with the help of corner grinder, the teeth is sharpened neatly. It is important not to overdo it, to feel how the corner grinder works, and do all the work to sharpen the saw, slowly and neatly.

Do not forget about precautions, since working with a corner grinder can be harmful to your own health. Be sure, before the sharpening of a saw with a corner grinder, you need to put on protective glasses on your eyes in order to avoid ward hit in the eye. It is also worth it to fix the saw tightly and only after that, you can proceed to the work of sharpening the saw.

So, as you can see, it is not so difficult to sharpen a wood saw on a tree with your own hands. For these purposes, you can use both a file and a corner grinder. But be sure to not forget about the measures of your own precaution, act as neatly and, of course, do not rush.

Sharpening of wood on wood in different ways

In order to sharpen the wood saw, a small corner grinder and a flat file with a durable handle will be needed in small sizes. Dilute the teeth of the saw to the sides, you can use the same file, but in order to quickly sharpen the saw on wood with your own hands, you can use a corner grinder.

The divorce of teeth on the saw is necessary in order to work with this wood tool could be as simple, easy and convenient as possible. To do this, the saw falls on a flat flat surface, after which, with the help of a flat file, the teeth of saws are divorced in one and the other, depending on their direction. Too much divorce of wood on wood should not be done, 3-4 millimeters are enough.

Further, with the help of the same flat file, you can also sharpen the saw on wood. To do this, the saw canvas is left in the same position as with a saw’s divorce, and then with the help of a file there is a sharpening of its teeth. At first, one side of the teeth of the saw is neatly hidden, after which you can start sharpening the opposite side of the teeth.

Sharpening of wood on wood in different ways

In order to sharpen the wood saw, a small corner grinder and a flat file with a durable handle will be needed in small sizes. Dilute the teeth of the saw to the sides, you can use the same file, but in order to quickly sharpen the saw on wood with your own hands, you can use a corner grinder.

The divorce of teeth on the saw is necessary in order to work with this wood tool could be as simple, easy and convenient as possible. To do this, the saw falls on a flat flat surface, after which, with the help of a flat file, the teeth of saws are divorced in one and the other, depending on their direction. Too much divorce of wood on wood should not be done, 3-4 millimeters are enough.

Further, with the help of the same flat file, you can also sharpen the saw on wood. To do this, the saw canvas is left in the same position as with a saw’s divorce, and then with the help of a file there is a sharpening of its teeth. At first, one side of the teeth of the saw is neatly hidden, after which you can start sharpening the opposite side of the teeth.

How to determine the moment when it is time to sharpen the hacksaw

In order not to shorten the service life of the canvas of the hacksaw, you need to sharpen it only when it can no longer perform a high.Quality cut, or requires more effort while working with it. The main signs of a blown saw can be called the following:

  • The ends of the teeth were rounded, their shape was distorted;
  • The sound of the saw has changed: there was a feeling that the wood is not cut, but is torn through the fibers;
  • The speed of the cut decreased compared to the new hacksaw;
  • In the section began to appear in the cuts and bullying;
  • The hacksaw periodically closes even with a flat crus.

If at least one of the listed signs appears, then the manual saw needs to be maintained. It refers to both the direct sharpening of the teeth and their correct wiring.

Tools and devices, preparation for work.

Wood hacksaw canvases are made of corrosion.Resistant alloy steels with a hardness of 40-50 units according to HRC. Thanks to the use of such material, the tool retains its qualities, even if it was not used for several decades. To return to duty, even an old rusty canvas is enough only to sharpen and dilute the teeth, and this will require some tool and equipment. Immediately make a reservation that modern hacksaws with a hot gear edge (where the colors of the runner are visible) do not sharpen and do not get divorced, except after annealing the canvas.

Reliable fastening of the hacksaw is provided using a piece of board, on the end of which it was made parallel to the wide side. Saw should be done with the same hacksaw, which is processed, the depth is about 70–80 mm. The canvas should be inserted into the cut with a butt down so that the teeth protrude from a saw to a height of at least 50 mm. The wooden knock itself needs to be squeezed in a vice, or fixed to any stationary object, immobilizing the canvas with a wide and thin wedge

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As a further improvement in the cuset, you can use such a holder to quickly fix the saw blade

Metal processing of such hardness is possible by manual and mechanized way. In the first case, you can use files with a firmness of 60 or 65 HRC, or diamond files. During mechanical processing, an electrical sharpener is used with a white electrocorundum stone installed on it on a volcanic bundle. The optimal circle diameter is 120. 160 mm, it is desirable that the thickness does not exceed 8 mm, otherwise it will be necessary to refuel the end to the plate to a plate profile. The granularity of abrasive particles should be p 120–140 or higher.

To carry out the divorce of teeth, a tool called wiring is required. This is a thin plate on the handle, having one or more transverse incisions of different widths. The butt of the hacksaw should be included in one of the cuts so tightly that the slope of the handle relative to the canvas is at a right angle /- 2 °. So that the divorce is uniform and symmetrical in both directions, an angular adjustable limiter in the form of a metal arc is attached to the wiring.

How to sharpen and breed a saw correctly

Like any tool, manual hacksaws need to care and maintenance. It is possible to ensure high accuracy and purity of the cut only to the condition that the teeth are properly sharpened and divorced. This does not need special equipment, a simple tool and basic knowledge is enough.

Theoretical part

To ensure high cut quality, you need to understand the mechanism of exposure to the edges of the teeth of the hacksaw on the processed material.

Unlike steel and plastic wood, the material is heterogeneous, it is because of this quality that several types of saws were developed that differ in the profile of the teeth, the angle of their sharpening and the degree of divorce.

All varieties of hacksaws for wood, their characteristics and technical data are indicated in GOST 26215–84.

The main types of stabbings for wood.

For transverse cutting type 1; 2. For transverse sawing type 2; 3. For longitudinal sawing type 1; 4. For longitudinal sawing type 2; 5. For universal sawing

There are three types of hacksaws: for transverse, longitudinal sawing, as well as universal.

The main difference is in principle of cutting: when sawing wood across the fibers, fragments of different densities are found on the path of the tooth.

On the one hand, this circumstance plays on hand: the formed chips have a smaller size and is easily removed from the contact zone, which allows sharpening on both sides of the tooth for sawing, both in the direct and in the opposite direction of filing. On the other hand, cutting across the fibers is partly on a blow, respectively, more stupid angles of the descent of the cutting edges are necessary.

Sawing wood along the fibers can be described as repeated microstalum cycles. The force exerted on the tooth, in this case is uniform, therefore the teeth have an asymmetric shape and are directed by the tip towards cutting.

In this case, the edge formed at the top of the tooth is directed strictly perpendicular to the plane of the canvas. When sawing along the fibers, elongated chips are formed, the removal of which is difficult from the contact zone.

Also, with longitudinal cutting, more moisture, tar and adhesive substances are noted, which, in combination with the first factor, does not allow sawing in both directions.

Stick removal occurs with direct submission of the tool: the perpendicular direction of the edge helps to release sawdust towards sawing. With the reverse movement, the removal of the remains of the chips and the self.Cleaning of the edges are ensured.

The teeth of all types of hacksaws have wiring, they are alternately tilted in different directions from the longitudinal axis of the canvas.

Due to this, in the longitudinal profile of a number of teeth of the hacksaw, a certain semblance of a swallow tail is formed. Two sets of cutting wedges formed by the acorns of the cutting edges of the teeth.

Accordingly, at the bottom of the cut, the hacksaw forms two grooves, which ensures uniform stepped and effective chips.

Tools and devices, preparation for work

Wood hacksaw canvases are made of corrosion.Resistant alloy steels with a hardness of 40-50 units according to HRC. Thanks to the use of such material, the tool retains its qualities, even if it was not used for several decades.

To return to duty, even an old rusty canvas is enough only to sharpen and dilute the teeth, and this will require some tool and equipment.

Immediately make a reservation that modern hacksaws with a hot gear edge (where the colors of the runner are visible) do not sharpen and do not get divorced, except after annealing the canvas.

Reliable fastening of the hacksaw is provided using a piece of board, on the end of which it was made parallel to the wide side. Saw should be done with the same hacksaw, which is processed, the depth is about 70–80 mm.

The canvas should be inserted into the cut with a butt down so that the teeth protrude from a saw to a height of at least 50 mm.

The wooden knock itself needs to be squeezed in a vice, or fixed to any stationary object, immobilizing the canvas with a wide and thin wedge

Photo a.D-CD.NETV as a further improvement in the roster can use such a holder to quickly fix the saw blade

Metal processing of such hardness is possible by manual and mechanized way. In the first case, you can use files with a firmness of 60 or 65 HRC, or diamond files.

During mechanical processing, an electrical sharpener is used with a white electrocorundum stone installed on it on a volcanic bundle. The optimal diameter of the circle is 120 160 mm, it is desirable that the thickness does not exceed 8 mm, otherwise it will be necessary to refuel the end to the plate profile.

The granularity of abrasive particles should be p 120–140 or higher.

To carry out the divorce of teeth, a tool called wiring is required. This is a thin plate on the handle, having one or more transverse incisions of different widths.

breed, wood, teeth

The butt of the hacksaw should be included in one of the cuts so tightly that the slope of the handle relative to the canvas is at a right angle /- 2 °.

So that the divorce is uniform and symmetrical in both directions, an angular adjustable limiter in the form of a metal arc is attached to the wiring.

Divorce of the teeth of the saw

The teeth of the hacksaw are diluted before sharpening. The canvas should be tightly clamped in a vice, the teeth are cleaned of tar and fine wood. Before breaking the teeth, you need to calibrate the tool.

This will require a set of probes and a metal ruler. The value on which the teeth should bend is set by the standard and is an average of 1/10 step or distance between the peaks.

Having measured the step of the teeth, you need to choose the corresponding set of probes or linings, the total thickness of which is equal to the distance of the divorce.

First, you should choose an arbitrary tooth and bend it for a certain size, by achieving the correct size of bending by eye. After that, a set of distance linings is pressed to the plane of the canvas, the total thickness of which is equivalent to the size of the divorce. The metal ruler must be pressed with the edge to the lining and ensure that when passing by the top of the tooth, only a light touch is provided.

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