Test Paper Grade 5 Woodworking 2 options

Among the large number of construction tools there are all kinds of additional devices designed to facilitate the hard work of masters. Those engaged in carpentry are familiar with this somewhat strange name. “”, which denotes a tool-assist for making a cut of a board or any other profiled material

at an angle that is fixed structurally or independently determined. For perfect interior and exterior projections, the angle is usually 45°.

the material, intended for sawing at an angle, can be various: skirting boards, door and window trims, moldings, laths, cornices, etc.д. The chair is rigidly fixed to the workbench, the material is sometimes clamped. such a device is safe and convenient to use.

How to cut at a 45 degree angle

Often during repairs you may encounter a situation where you need to saw off a piece from the part, at an angle of strictly 45 degrees. As a rule, it is necessary to connect the 2-piece at right angles, 90 degrees, such as: door trim, baseboard, furniture and almost everything else. The most experienced craftsman, skillfully engaged in repair work, can often do without any special devices, and in fact by eye is able to evenly and correctly cut the desired part. But if you are a novice repairman, and you have a desire to do the job very well, without spoiling expensive parts, then you just need to buy a wire cutter. a special device that allows without any special tricks to saw off the material at this angle.

To work you need to have: a plane, a hacksaw, a protractor with a pencil, a piece of wood, an electric screwdriver with screws or a screw clamp.

Cutting under 45 degrees

A common example of this is the need to cut a metal pipe at a 45 degree angle. Such cutting of material is often required when laying plumbing or heating systems. In this case we have to deal with steel pipes.

The usual cylindrical pipes are usually used for this purpose. If we are talking about the installation of any metal structures, more often are used profile pipes of rectangular or square cross section.

The main problem here is that in order to connect the elements to coincide, the cut must be as flat as possible, which means that particularly close attention should be paid to marking the material.


If you need to cut at an angle, you can use a simple square piece of paper as a marking template. It must be folded strictly diagonally, and then wrap the template around the pipe.

Be careful to keep the side of the sheet that is nearest to the end of the pipe perpendicular to its central axis. Next, using the marking material is applied a series of dotted lines and after the marking is made around the circumference of the template can be removed.

If you have to cut a profile pipe, then it is advisable to make a special template from the same pipe, but with a larger cross-section. In this case, you will only have to use the measuring tools once. To draw the marks you will need to use protractor or a construction angle.

After sawing a template, the pipes to be cut can simply be inserted into it and marked out. This approach will save a lot of time of work and it will be convenient to cut the profile pipe under 45 degrees.

As for what to use when carrying out the work, it is worth choosing the most appropriate and familiar. It can be a simple hacksaw for metal, or an angle grinder with a mounted cutting disc.

Teeth and their shape

The capabilities of the saw depend on the shape and size of the teeth. A large number of teeth on a certain length of the blade means a thin sawing, but a slow advance. Fewer teeth give a coarse cut.

Wood consists of fibers, which become separated while sawing. It produces sawdust that needs to be removed. The shallower the teeth, the faster the kerf and the cutting edge of the saw is clogged with fine sawdust. sawdust. The teeth can no longer grip wood to their full height. Cutting is becoming more and more tedious, and especially so unproductive. On the other hand, large teeth almost never get clogged because their tips are farther apart.

Almost all saws have bifurcated teeth, i.e. their tips alternately bend left and right. the higher the angle of slope, the wider the kerf, so it becomes less blocked with sawdust and the saw becomes less jammed.

Over time the saw’s teeth become dull and need to be sharpened. The disturbed alignment must be restored. It’s not an easy job, even for a specialist. this is why we recommend to buy saws with hardened teeth. They do not blunt as quickly and are easier to sharpen than the teeth of conventional saws.

All you have to do is put the saw blade on the table and use the sharpening stone to move it twice along the cutting edge from the end to the handle, then turn the blade upside down. The saw is sharpened, it is possible to start the work.

Tools for sawing logs

Sawing tools and methods depend on the total volume of logs, such as length, thickness. In addition, it is necessary to consider the quality of the future lumber. Sawing a log means working with different tools and specialized equipment. To get a small amount of sawn timber at home the manual method of timber processing with a chainsaw or traditional hand saws with teeth for longitudinal sawing is suitable.

Sawmill is probably the most famous type of sawmill equipment. It is a woodworking machine with frame saws. The sawmill produces longitudinal sawn timber, such as edged boards or logs. The frame saws allow to cut logs with diameters from 15 to 80 cm and the length up to 7 m.

Cutting logs into boards with circular saws (circular saws) is carried out by means of a circular saw. These lines are either single-blade (single-blade) or multi-blade (multi-blade). Single-disk devices suitable for small and low-quality feedstocks. With the help of multi-disc machines it is possible to cut round workpieces with large diameter.

The most popular today are band saws. They are available in two types: vertical and horizontal. The cutting tool in such machines is the band blade, which is put on pulleys. Working on band saws guarantees high-quality longitudinal and mixed lumber, such as plank and timber. This produces the smallest amount of waste.

Large industrial companies use wood sawing lines. They allow for very high surface quality and precise geometry in the final products. Such lines are characterized by the highest productivity.

In addition to all the equipment listed above, such types of highly specialized sawmill equipment as debarkers, edgers, band-splitting and other types of machines are also used.

Very often there are situations when it is necessary to produce a very small amount of boards or bars for their own needs. Of course, buying machines in this case. absolutely not an option. Having certain knowledge and skills it is much more profitable to saw logs with your own hands, using an electric or gasoline chain saw. Despite the fact that this work is quite labor-intensive, the result is quite justified.

Most experts believe that a chainsaw is better suited for this purpose. Such equipment has high capacity and can operate without interruption for a long time. Besides the chainsaw does not need any electricity, so you can work away from the electricity supply, for example on a plot.

In order to cut the log into boards with a chain saw you will also need special tools, such as a mechanism for securing the log, a frame, the nozzle on the chain saw, as well as a guide for sawing. Attach the frame attachment to the chain saw bar so that you can adjust the space between it and the chain. This will make it possible to create boards of different thicknesses. It is worth buying a special chain, for longitudinal sawing. It has a special angle for sharpening the teeth. The ruler-guide can be made from a metal profile of the required length or from a flat rigid board.

Before you begin, you must remove all bark and remaining limbs from the logs, and carefully inspect the log for any flaws. That way you can choose the most appropriate cutting scheme and thus reduce the amount of waste that can be generated.

If you are sawing logs longitudinally you must make sure that the density of the timber is the same across the entire width. Since the density of wood from the northern part of the log is much higher than from the southern part, the sawing is carried out in a plane directed from east to west (or in reverse order).

The first thing to do is to remove the humps from the two opposite edges of the log. The end product is a two edged beam which is sawn into boards of equal thickness or other sawn timber according to the planned cutting pattern. The end product is an unedged board, which is then necessarily edged.

For centuries, lumber has been the most popular raw material for home construction. Today the primitive processing methods have been replaced by modern equipment. For example, to cut timber and process it to the right size, craftsmen use a sawmill. The disadvantage of such a machine is in its cost. For this reason many people make mini saws on the basis of a chainsaw.

If you decide to buy or already have one, you will need to learn all the specifics of working with this tool. If you buy and work properly, it is safe to use and a pleasure to work with a chainsaw.

To work with a chainsaw, buy yourself special protective clothing, which will consist of a helmet and mask, a bright jacket and pants. This shape protects you from saw cuts.

How to cut a felled tree with a chainsaw

How to saw boards with a chainsaw with their own hands?

Use full throttle for the part of the bar closest to the machine’s body. And for each material it is necessary to use a specific method of cutting.

If you want to cut down branches from a tree, you need to stand to the left of the trunk and start sawing at the bottom. Make all movements slowly. Cutting is done with the nose of the bar, namely with the upper and lower chain blades.

Saw thick and difficult branches in several cuts.

Start sawing from the end to the base of the tree trunk. It should also be noted that without some support the trunk can roll, and before starting the work process make sure that the tree is lying secure and stable.

After all the branches have been cut from the trunk, you can move on to the next step

Template 45 degrees. 45 degree angle pattern

Often the home handyman has an urgent need to make some measurement or marking at a certain angle, and either an angle or protractor is unavailable at hand. In this case, a few simple rules will help him out.

If you need to urgently build a right angle, and you do not have a square, you can use any printed book. The angle of the paper sheet is a very precise right angle ( 90 deg.). The cutting (punching) machines of printers are set up very precisely. Otherwise the original roll of paper will begin to cut crookedly and tangentially. So you can be sure that this angle is exactly a right angle.

And if you don’t even have a printout or need to build a corner on the ground, for example when marking a foundation or a sheet of plywood with uneven edges? In this case, the rule of the golden (or Egyptian) triangle will help us.

The golden (or Egyptian, or Pythagorean) triangle is a triangle with sides that relate to each other as 5:4:3. According to Pythagoras’ theorem, in a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the cathetuses. Т.е. 5×5 = 4×4 3×3. 25=169 and it is undeniable.

Therefore, to build a right angle, it is sufficient to draw a straight line for the trimmer of length 5 (10,15,20, etc.) on the workpiece.д. multiple of 5 cm). And then, from the edges of this line, start to measure off on one side 4 (8,12,16, etc.e is a multiple of 4 cm), and on the other side 3 (6,9,12,15, etc.д. multiple of 3 cm) distance. Arcs with a radius of 4 and 3 cm should be obtained. Where these arcs intersect each other and will be a right angle (90 degrees).

These angles are commonly used in the construction of rectangular frames. The material from which the frame (baguette) is made is sawn at an angle of 45 degrees and joined. If you do not have a plane or protractor at hand, you can get a template angle of 45 degrees as follows. You need to take a sheet of writing paper or any printed matter, and bend it so that the line for the bending trimmer passed exactly through the corner, and the edges of the bent sheet coincide. The resulting angle will be 45 degrees.

A house lamp made of wood with his hands

Angle of 60 degrees is required to build equilateral triangles. For example, you need to saw such triangles for decorative work or accurately set the power mowing. Angle of 30 degrees is rarely used in its pure form. However, with it (and with a 90 degree angle) a 120 degree angle is constructed. And it is the angle necessary for construction of equilateral hexagons, figure very popular at carpenters.

To construct a very accurate template of these angles at any time, you need to remember the constant (number) 173. They follow from the ratio of the sines and cosines of these angles.

Take a sheet of paper from any printed publication. Its angle is exactly 90 degrees. From the corner on one side, measure 100 mm (10 cm).) and the other is 173 mm (17.3 cm). Connect these points. So we got a pattern, which has one corner of 90 degrees, one of 30 degrees and one of 60 degrees. You can check with a protractor. it is exact!

Remember this number. 173, and you can always build angles of 30 and 60 degrees.

When you are marking blanks or drawings on the parts besides the angles themselves it is very important to observe their correlation. This is especially important when making rectangular pieces or when, for example, marking out foundations, or cutting large sheets of material. Incorrect construction or marking brings subsequently a lot of unnecessary work or to the appearance of a large number of wastes.

Unfortunately, even very exact marking tools, even professional ones, always have a certain error.

Meanwhile, there is a very simple method for determining if a part or construction is rectangular. The diagonals of a rectangle are absolutely equal! So, after drawing, you need to measure the diagonal lengths of the rectangle. If they are equal, everything is OK, it really is a rectangle. And if they are not. you have built a parallelogram or a rhombus. In this case it is necessary to “play” a little with the adjacent sides, that to achieve exact (for this case) equality of diagonals of the marked rectangle.

How to work with a hand saw

The saw must be guided, otherwise it will start to “walk”. This should be taken literally. Wood is a living material, and its behavior is unpredictable. Hard annual rings, knots, cracks, high humidity and high tar can seriously complicate sawing.

For this reason there is no universal tool that can take into account all the vagaries of wood, but there are many different special saws. It is not the material from which the saw blade is made that determines the shape and the order in which the teeth are set, but the saw’s purpose. Some saws can only be used in a straight line, others travel better in a circular motion.

When sawing, only the saw moves, the workpiece must be securely clamped. That’s why you need a stable support. E.g. on a workbench or on the sawhorse. Workpieces are clamped with a clamp or held in place by hand, and particularly large workpieces are additionally clamped with a knee.

Sawing begins and ends with repeated light pulling of the saw in the opposite direction, i.e. a “trace” is laid. At the end of the sawing process, hold on to the hackle firmly, so it does not break off with the hackle.

Sawing is one of the most common processes in wood processing. A clean, even cut is no problem if you have the right tool and know how to use it.


In the photo (from top to bottom): large and small hacksaws; saw with a “back”; saw with a narrow blade. Next to the left is the fret saw.

Variable cutting angles

With different cutting angles, you can make the joint at the desired angle. For non-standard angles you can make a neat joint by measuring the required angle of cut with an adjustable bevel or a contour template. Set the malka at exactly half this angle and make appropriate marks on each workpiece. Then set the mallet to the same angle and you can make a clean joint.

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