Cutting glass tubes. Cutting glass tubes of different diameters How to cut a glass tube at home
Hello, dear readers! By the way, we have already considered this topic in a review ” “, and since many are interested in how to cut the glass bottle at home, without the use of glass cutters, then today’s master class I want to devote a simple but interesting way to cut the bottle thread.
In this connection, the theme of this master class “How to cut the bottle with a thread. nothing complicated!”.
- A glass bottle;
- Woolen thread;
- Solvent (you can use kerosene, alcohol, cologne, acetone);
- Scissors or a clerical knife;
- Gloves (to protect the skin of your hands from the solvent);
- A lighter or matches;
- For eye protection just in case glasses (in fact, there are no splinters, but caution is not superfluous);
- A deep basin filled with cold water.
So, how to cut the bottle with thread? Take the woolen thread, measure and cut it so it will be enough for 3-4 turns of the bottle.
We dip the measured and cut thread in the solvent, and immediately wrap the bottle, in the place where it is planned to make the “cut”. The thread can be simply wrapped or tied with a knot, in this master class, I made a simple wrapping.
After that, this thread is lit with matches or a lighter, and it is better to keep the bottle in an inclined position. strictly horizontal (parallel to the ground), gently scrolling around the axis.
The fire will burn for about 30-40 seconds, as soon as the lit thread goes out. quickly lower the bottle into the prepared basin filled with cold water.
Then a characteristic cracking sound will be heard and the bottle will instantly split in two. This type of glass cutting is based on a rapid change of temperature, we all know from physics lessons that when heated, the glass expands, and when cooled, it narrows, respectively, when a sharp change in temperature is a kind of destruction of the glass and it is simply cracked!
Cutting glass tubes, sticks, bottles, blanks and flat glass. one of the most common operations in laboratory and glassblowing. It in most cases precedes all glassblowing operations. Only correctly cut is the tubing suitable for further processing (soldering of the tubes, melting of the tube ends, soldering of the spurs, etc.).). The end of a properly cut tube in cross-section should be strictly perpendicular to its length, have no nicks or fibers, as well as short cracks, located at a slight angle to the place of the cut. Depending on the diameter of the tube or workpiece, different cutting methods are used.
Cutting the tube to a breaking point. This method is used to cut 20-23mm diameter tubing and glass sticks. Place the glass tube on the table edge and hold the protruding part of the tube with the left hand. At its simplest, the tube is simply clamped in the left hand. In the right hand take a carbide knife (cutter) or a sharp file with a fine notch. With the cutter or file placed on the tube in the marked position and perfectly perpendicular to the length, with the left hand rotate the tube toward yourself about a quarter of the diameter (fig. 27, а). To reduce the surface tension in the place of the incision, the tube can be moistened with water or soapy water solution.
The cut can also be made by another method. Using the right hand (the tube is clamped in the left hand) put the knife on the tube and with a little pressure from yourself downwards make a scratch, then push the knife back upwards, without taking it away from the tube, and again down towards yourself. This creates an even cut equal to a quarter of the tube diameter. the cut can be made in another way by placing one end of the tube on your right knee and pressing the other end with your left hand against your left leg.
Glassblowers often use the following technique to make the mark. The glass tube to be cut is grasped firmly with the left hand and held between the thumb and forefinger. Hold the cutter or file in your right hand (Fig. 27, б). The pad of the right thumb should rest on the sharp edge of the file. Then clamp the tube firmly between the sharp edge of the file and your thumb and make a slight turn: with your right hand. on itself, and with the left hand. away from you, making a slit in the surface of the tube.
For those who are beginning to learn glass cutting this method should be used with care because the tube, especially a thin-walled one, can break and hurt your hand. After marking, the tube is taken in both hands with the mark; upwards, so that the mark is at the same distance from the right and left hands, and smoothly, stretching in different directions, the tube is broken (Fig. 27, в). If the pipe does not break, make a new one at the old notch using one of these methods and break it again. To reduce surface tension, the mark-cutting mark is moistened with water. The tubing, in doing so, breaks more easily. While students acquire some skill in cutting tubing, this operation should be carried out with their hands wrapped in a towel or rag to avoid cuts. When cutting, the glass sticks should be broken with a sharp movement so that no burrs are formed at the ends.
The Great Encyclopedia of Oil and Gas
Glass pipes are cut with the glass cutter and by means of electric heating. Sometimes pipes are cut with abrasive circular saws. When cutting with a glass cutter a circular notch is made on the inside of the pipe. Lightly tap the outside wall of the pipe against the notch causes the entire pipe cross-section to break off in the plane of the undercut. 
Glass pipes are cut with a nichrome wire heated by an electric current from a 220 / 127 V light network through a step-down (36 V) transformer, followed by rapid cooling of the cut with water. One coil of bare wire is wrapped around the pipe at the point of cut. The wire is stretched and fastened in such a way that both of its ends at the point of exit from the pipe were not more than 1 mm away from each other. When the power is turned on, the wire heats up to a bright red color and heats up a narrow section of the pipe. After heating, the current is turned off, the wire is removed and the heated place is cooled down with a wet sponge. With a sharp temperature drop, an annular crack appears at the cutting point, which splits the pipe into two parts. 
Glass pipes are cut during installation by heating the cut point and then cooling it down quickly, or by using a glass cutter. 
Cutting glass pipes during installation is accomplished by electrically heating the pipe cut point followed by its rapid cooling. 
Glass pipes are also cut with a diamond cutting wheel while rotating the pipe. 
Cutting glass tubes is done with a circular thermal saw or by electrically heating the cut. 
Glass pipes can be cut in two ways: electrically and mechanically. 
Cutting of glass pipes for welding is realized by two ways: by means of electric heating or with glass cutter. Sometimes pipes are cut with abrasive circular saws. 
Glass pipes are most often cut by installers using an electric cutter. In the simplest case nichrome or nickel wire of 0 8 dia is used. 1 2 mm. The wire ends must be reliably insulated to protect the worker from burns. The wire is heated by electric current from the lighting network through the step-down transformer. 
After cutting glass pipes electrically or mechanically the pipe ends have sharp cutting edges, protrusions, spikes. The pipe ends after cutting are machined with a carborundum disc using an electric grinder with a flexible shaft. In some organizations an electric drill is used, the carborundum disc is fastened in it with a chuck. The sharp edges of the pipes are rounded or chamfered. 
When cutting glass pipes, the nichrome wire with which the cut is made must be held in insulating holders. If there are no holders, the wire should be wrapped in asbestos to prevent burns. 
How do you cut glass if you don’t have a glass cutter??
A small trickle of hot water is poured over the wire to trim the cut, preferably without going over the edge of the cut. Then the bottle is placed under a stream of cold water. The process of alternating hot and cold water should be repeated until the container splits into pieces. The edges are cleaned with emery paper, first coarse, then fine.
Mark with a marker the line for the trimmer, along which you want to cut the bottle. Soak the thread in acetone and wrap it several times around the planned line. Tie up the line and cut off the ends.
How to cut glass without a glass cutter
Before we proceed to a detailed description of glass cutting techniques, we want to remind you of safety. Always wear work gloves and safety glasses to prevent cuts and small pieces of glass from getting into the eyes. Be careful not to put too much pressure on the glass.
A very common method, mostly used to cut glass bottles. Straight glasses, also can be cut by this method, but with a little nuances. All you need to make an even break in the glass is a piece of woolen thread, flammable liquid (alcohol, kerosene, etc.) and a small piece of glass.д.) and a container of cold water.
Soak the thread in the flammable liquid and fix it on the glass along the cut line. Light it, wait till it burns through, and then put it in cold water or pour it on the heated place. The main thing is that the glass cools down as quickly as possible and breaks from the temperature drop. A “click” is the signal that the work was successful. If the glass is not cracked, you can try to repeat the operation.
This method cuts the bottles quite evenly, but does not always work with large glass sizes. It is also very flammable and requires a fire extinguisher on hand or a reservoir of water, which is already a must.
Very interesting, but slow method of thermal cutting glass. suitable for shape cutting, but will also make a normal straight line for the trimmer with no problem. For this operation we will need a file and a heating element (soldering iron or a device for burning).
After marking the line for the trimmer of the future cut on the glass, we take a file and make a small groove with it at the edge. Step back from it 1-2 mm, heat the place with the soldering iron, until a micro-crack is formed between it and the groove. Then we step back from the crack itself at the same distance and gradually move to the finish point. It takes a long time to cut the glass this way, but you can get any shape. To speed up the process slightly, you can periodically cool the glass by putting a damp cloth on it.
Scissors in water
A simple way to directionally chip the glass. Makes it easy to cut round shapes, but not perfect for making straight lines. You will need a pair of scissors and a container of water to serve as a lubricant. Maximum glass thickness must not exceed 4 mm.
The process of cutting with this method is extremely simple. We take a piece of glass to be cut, immerse it in water and use scissors to cut off small pieces from the edges. Water will not allow the glass to crack, allowing you to make a controlled chip. You can cut both oval and circular shapes in this way.
With a diamond wheel
Not the safest way to cut glass, and requires a high degree of care and strict adherence to safety rules. Can easily chip glass and launch splinters in any direction. Otherwise, the method is quite effective and can cope with the task. For cutting you will need a special tool (angle grinder, drilling machine or drill) with a diamond disk with a thickness of 0.1 mm.
The process of cutting itself is quite simple, but it requires a certain skill and a steady hand to guide the tool accurately along the line. Place the piece of glass to be cut on a flat surface, use the cutter and run the trimmer blade on the glass surface. The main thing is not to plunge into the depths, but only to touch lightly, so that a small groove is formed, similar to a wide line for a trimmer from the glass cutter. Then we just break the glass in the right place.
To reduce the risk of glass breakage and to reduce the amount of glass dust, you can periodically sprinkle water on the place where you cut the glass.
With the file
Another way to cut glass at home without a glass cutter and expensive power tools. The work will require a file and some experience in handling glass. Note that the file must have angles, so a round one will not work.
To cut glass, simply make a few notches on the surface with the angle of the file. You need to press your file a little harder than average to create a clean groove similar to a glass cutter. When the place of the chip is marked, just break the glass on the edge of the table or put a match under the place of the cut.
This method requires a certain skill and if you are cutting glass for the first time we suggest that you practice on small pieces of unnecessary glass before you move on to the base material.
Use a beater drill bit
If you know what glass cutting is all about, here’s another way to cut glass without a glass cutter. With some experience, one drill bit with a pobedite tip may be enough for this operation. The main thing is that the drill should be more or less new, with sharp angles on the head.
The very process of cutting glass with a glass cutter is much the same as with a regular roller glass cutter. The only difference is a higher pressure, but everything else is standard. Lay the glass on a flat surface, mark the trimmer line for the cut, attach the bar, and lead the trimmer line from top to bottom. Before cutting, turn the tip so that the sharpest corner is in contact with the glass. Once you have a clear line for the trimmer, break the glass along the cutting line.
Cut the bottle
Begin by determining where the cut will be made. To make it even, take a piece of paper and wrap the bottle with it. Align the edges of the sheet so that the trimmer line is level. Then take a marker or a felt-tip pen and trace the border on the edge of the sheet. Now the sheet can be removed.
Next, you need to take a piece of nichrome wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm, attach one end to a fixed object. I use a black weight for this purpose. Here we attach one wire from the battery to it.
In order not to burn ourselves, we take the wire with pliers. Tighten it just a little so that it lines up.Apply voltage to the other end of the wire.
You can see that the wire is red-hot. At the points of contact with the bottle, the wire does not exactly turn red, because the bottle takes away the heat.
Wait without moving the wire and keeping it under tension for about 30 seconds.Then quickly remove the wire and splash the place of heating with water. You can also prepare a bucket of water and dip the bottle in it.
You will hear the glass click and the bottle will break right where the nichrome wire is.
The explanation is simple: during the heating of certain place there is an internal tension in the glass. After a sharp cooling, the surface of the glass cools dramatically, while the interior of the glass remains warm. This abrupt change results in microcracks that instantly develop into splintering.
If the bottle does not break off after water, just take it by the neck and press a little. Everything should fall off.
All roughness and sharp edges can be removed after cutting with fine emery paper.When working with glass be very careful not to cut yourself. Be especially wary of small splinters, take all necessary measures to avoid them spreading.
An angle grinder equipped with a diamond disc will easily cut off a piece of sheet glass. The main difficulty is to guide the saw exactly along the marks. It is not necessary to plunge the cutter into the material, as in the general case only a narrow groove from edge to edge of the sheet is required to separate the desired part. Particular attention must be paid to safety, a high degree of concentration is required. When working with an angle grinder produces glass dust, to reduce its quantity, it is recommended to water the line for trimmer cutting.
Working with glass
Cutting the tubes and sticks. measure a piece of glass tube or glass rod to the proper length and notch it with a sharp file in one or two file strokes toward you, holding the tube in your left hand at the notch and holding it firmly on the table. Do not saw the tube with a file, only a scratch is needed on the glass. If the tube is thick and has a large diameter (over 8-10 mm), two cuts are made on the tube on opposite sides, exactly opposite each other.
After making the cut, the tube is taken in both hands at the very edge of the scratch, so that the scratch is between the hands and the tube is lightly bent and simultaneously pulled apart, as if breaking it at the place of the cut. Usually the tube or stick will break straight.
Instead of a file, you can use a special steel knife to cut the glass. Use a knife to make a notch, just like a file. To cut larger diameter tubes, use a knife (or file) to make a circular notch around the circumference of the tube. Then a piece of iron wire bent as a semicircle around the diameter of the tube is heated up to redness and circled along the scratch with it. This creates a deep crack at the scratch, and the tube is then easily broken as usual. If a short bent tube or stick is needed, it is bent by heating it in the flame of the burner first, and then it is cut.
Melting the Ends of Tubes and Wands. The end of each tube or stick should be melted after cutting. This is done so that the sharp edges cannot injure your hands and cut through the rubber tubes. To melt the end of the tube or stick, insert it in the flame of a torch and rotate it until the sharp edges disappear.
Sometimes the end of the wand is made in the shape of a spatula or nail head. To obtain a spatula, strongly heat the end of the stick in the flame of a blowtorch until softened, and then on a marble slab quickly press the softened end with a metal object. To obtain the hat, the softened end of the stick is placed against a marble slab and pressed down.
Bending the tubes. A “dovetail” nozzle should be put on the gas torch to give a broadened flame. The tube is introduced into the flame along the whole width of the nozzle, rotating it steadily. Once the tube is sufficiently softened, the end of it is bent upwards, heating the convex side. The heating of the tube should be even and not too hard, because otherwise a crease will form at the place of bending, especially with thin-walled tubes. Do not make too steep a curve.
The bent tube is “hardened” by holding it in the glowing flame of the torch, and placed for cooling on an asbestos sheet, but in no case on a cold table or other object (such as glass), where it may crack. The glowing flame is produced by stopping the air supply to the mixing tube of the gas burner completely.
Pulling the tubes back. For pulling off the tube and getting the capillary the tube is put in the flame of soldering torch or usual burner with the nozzle “dovetail” and heated till the softening with the continuous turning. the tube is taken out of the flame and quickly pulled apart with both hands. After that they cut the tube, leaving the capillary of desired length and carefully melt the ends.
If it is necessary to pull the tube at its end, then another tube (or stick) is soldered to it, which serves only to hold it.
To solder the tube, it is first pulled off, the capillary is cut, and then the hole is fused by turning the end of the tube in the flame of a torch.