Chimney through the roof: how to bring the chimney through the ceiling and ceilings
Another name for this type of construction is also called a modular chimney. Used such pipes can be installed for boilers and stoves for heating both homes and baths. Assembled the chimneys of this species by the insertion of individual parts of each other methods “by condensate” or “by smoke.
Sandwich pipe elements can be made of stainless or galvanized steel. The first type of design owners of country houses is used most often. Galvanized chimneys, since zinc can burn at high temperatures, are mainly used only for the installation of gas boilers or boilers.
Pipes of this type received their original name for their multi-layered nature. When assembling such structures in the factory on the main chimney put another one that acts as a protective casing. Between the tubes inserted into each other the mineral wool is also mounted.
The main advantage of the sandwich flues, compared to conventional single-wall structures, is that no condensate is formed inside them during operation. In such chimneys never accumulate acids and deposits no soot. Accordingly, and the service life of the diverting exhaust fumes structures of this type is quite long.
Features of metal as a roofing
Metal tile. it is a corrugated steel coating, which is reinforced with a colored layer of corrosion protection of organic or composite materials. When laid in accordance with the technology of such a roof is designed for a lifetime of more than half a century. You will not need additional care for the roof, paint it or fix leaks. Steel is reliably protected and colored coating is designed to operate in outdoor conditions.
Please note! The closest “relative” of metal roofing profile. However, its appearance only reaches the economy class, while metal gives the building a respectable and aristocratic.
- low weight;
- ease of installation;
- environmental friendliness;
- affordable price;
- resistance to atmospheric influence.
- the complexity of covering a roof of a complex configuration;
- a large amount of waste material when laying on the shaped roof;
- noise from the thumps on the metal when it rains and the descent of snow masses;
- a large number of holes for mounting is a potential focus of corrosion and leaks.
Please note! The main disadvantage of covering a roof with metal can be called unprofessional work. In case of violation of the technology of cutting and laying, its condition will be deplorable in a few years.
How to organize a chimney on the roof of the general scheme
When installing the chimney, we must not forget that it is a potential cause of fire. Therefore, for the manufacture of its chosen three-layer system, which provides quality insulation. That is, between the outer and inner chimney should be present layer of insulation.
The device of modern roofing involves a variety of materials, because it consists not only of the roofing material. Need lumber for the construction of supporting structure, rafters and purlins, insulation to provide thermal insulation, as well as waterproofing and vapor barrier film, which are essential layers of the “pie” of the roof.
Among these materials are quite susceptible to fire. That’s why a competent organization of the chimney. the key to the protection and fire safety of the house.
Tip Given the importance of safe living in the house, it is recommended to buy accessories and materials for the organization of the chimney at specialty stores, where you can check the existing quality certificates.
Peculiarities of a pipe installation
In order to properly mount the protective box on the chimney, should understand how the system works, what the installation features of different types of pipes and in what area of the chimney can be done without additional protection.
There are the following rules for the installation of the pipe and its insulation:
- Brick chimney is installed with the support on a separate foundation and has no reference to the ceiling overlap or roof.
- Additional fixation of the high (over 1.5 m) the chimney is carried out by braces, which are mounted separately from the building.
- The distance from the chimney body to the ceiling materials must be no less than 15 cm. For metal chimneys minimum distance 25 cm.
- The joints of the chimney must not be in the area of the passage of ceilings. If the joints of the flue pipe coincide, the pipe is shortened at the bottom and increased at the top, shifting a solid section of the overlap area.
- Brick chimneys are effective only for classic natural solid fuel stoves. For slow-burning, gas-fired furnaces such chimneys are quickly destroyed by aggressive chemical compounds formed in them during heating. The best choice for such stoves is a metal sandwich.
- outlet not further than 1.5 m from the ridge. the height of the pipe is sufficiently 0.5 m.
- Outlet at a distance of 1.5 m to 3 m from the ridge. the top of the chimney may be at the same level as the ridge of the roof.
- Chimney outlet at a distance of more than 3 m from the ridge. here the chimney height is calculated based on the following ratio: the angle between the horizontal line from the ridge and the line connecting the pipe top with the roof ridge is 10 degrees.
Notice! Stove draft is highly dependent on the height of the pipe and its location relative to the roof ridge. White flame indicates too much draught, warm orange indicates not enough.
Peculiarities of installation of various covers
Installing the box for the chimney begins with a cut 2 holes: in the ceiling overlap and in the roof. Make a square kerf in the overlap, based on the size of the required minimum distance between the pipe wall and the overlap material. The kerf in the roof will be rectangular, with an equal projection to the bottom hole.
To insulate the pipe on the kerf a metal box is made. It is cut out with metal scissors, with an overlap (5 cm) in the form of the letter “U” on the outer part of the ceiling and the floor of the attic room.
Cut two covers according to the size of the box with a hole for the pipe.
Fill the inner cavity of the box with noncombustible insulating material. often use a mineral (basalt) wool.
Then, along the length of the attic section of the chimney, mount a protective casing of plasterboard (non-combustible), iron or wood.
Exit to the roof (roof section) is arranged through a system of protective aprons and ties (for the brick chimney) or a special casing for the metal chimney.
Roof sectioning for a brick chimney
Installation of insulation and waterproofing of a brick pipe is performed as follows:
- A frame of metal profile is installed on top of the pipe. Fix the profile with dowels.
- Cover the pipe with thermal insulation up to the profile thickness.
- Fix a plaster mesh on top of the thermal insulation layer.
- The structure is plastered and covered with a decorative tile or a ready-made metal casing.
- Install the waterproofing structure in the lower part of the pipe section above the roof.
- Grind a groove in the lower part of the pipe along the perimeter with an angle grinder.
- Adjacent slats are attached around the chimney, fixing the upper bend directly into the slots. During installation keep the overlapping of upper slats on the lower ones.
- Parts of slats, lying on the roof, are fastened to purlins with self-tapping screws.
- All joints are puttied with sealant.
- Place the roofing.
- Install the upper aprons, observing the principle “the upper apron on the lower one”.
- The upper apron of the chimney wound under the shingles or under the ridge itself.
Roof riser for a metal pipe
Warming and waterproofing of metal pipes is simplified by the fact that they are sold a lot of ready-to-install structures. There are special sandwich pipes, which initially come with a double wall and a layer of insulation.
To protect against moisture on round metal chimneys produce special polymeric tips, which is enough to cut to the diameter, put on the pipe and fasten the base on the roof. For corrugated roofing the nozzle should be chosen with a flexible base.
Independently made roof bend for a metal pipe can be made of galvanized sheet metal. For this purpose, a cone is cut, the upper hole of which is slightly larger than the diameter of the pipe. A cone is riveted at the joint and put on the pipe. Under it install a flexible apron-base, preserving the principle of “bottom sheet under the top”.
Conclusion of rectangular and square pipes
The chimney of stoves and fireplaces made of brick, most often a square or rectangular shape, so for its withdrawal on the roof used in other ways. This is a task for an experienced stovemaker, not a home handyman, because a special masonry technique is used in the process. When the chimney comes close to the roof, it is cut a hole of the appropriate size with an allowance of 2-5 cm, through which the stovemaker takes the pipe to the roof. Although heat-resistant brick perfectly retains heat inside the pipe, the inner side of the passage is sheathed with asbestos sheets to protect the rafters from fire.
On a brick chimney with a metal profile attached soft waterproofing tape on a lead or aluminum base, the lower edge of which is fixed to the roof with a sealant. After that, the unsightly waterproofing is closed with a special decorative apron. It consists of four filler pieces and is installed under the roofing material, making the passage neat and well protected.
Chimney is a hollow cylinder through which smoke and combustion products are exhausted into the atmosphere. Furnacemakers use the following options for organizing this process:
- Using a brick chimney. Chimney system made of heat-resistant bricks, designed specifically for masonry stoves, has a square or rectangular cross-section. This is an expensive way to get rid of smoke, but it is safer and more durable. The only disadvantage of a brick chimney. a porous pored surface, on which soot, dust settles. If you do not regularly clean the chimney, soot deposits will completely clog it, reduce the draft and increase the risk of fire. Take a brick chimney through the roof, so it is better not to do it yourself.
- Using a metal chimney. Metal pipes made of stainless steel with molybdenum or zinc added are sold in construction stores. Buying, straight sections, branches and clamps can be assembled chimney desired configuration by inserting the pipe segments one into another. Slippery inside surface of the chimney prevents soot accumulation, allowing air to move freely to the roof. Minus this method is that the metal is not as good at keeping heat as bricks, so because of the temperature difference in the street and inside the tube it settles condensate. Metal chimney is made with a circular cross-section, and due to the fact that it consists of individual parts, to bring it through the roof is quite simple.
Profiled sheeting around the chimney, located on the ridge
Chimney. an element that has a high fire hazard, so it is important to approach responsibly to the processes of its conclusion to the roof of corrugated board and insulation from the contents of the roof pie.
It is also important to protect the chimney from moisture, which can significantly reduce the life of the roof.
In this article we will consider in detail how to wrap the chimney on the roof with corrugated sheeting and consider issues of waterproofing.
In a sheet corrugated sheet that will surround the chimney, outlined contours with length and width parameters corresponding to the size of the chimney. Then, using an angle grinder it is necessary to cut a hole with a small indentation from the contours.
- Also holes are made in the elements of the roof pie, when calculating their width need to consider not only their own size pipe, but also the size of the protective box that will separate the chimney from the contents of the pie. Trim at the junction must be solid.
- How to make the passage of the pipe through the roof of corrugated steel sheeting? The pipe must be tightly surrounded by an outer and inner apron. The inner apron is under the sheets of corrugated boarding (except for the part around the walls of the pipe), it is attached to the crate. From it extends the stainless steel gutter, which should bypass the chimney on all sides and goes directly to the ends of the slopes to the eaves plank. On it will flow down precipitation and condensation.
- If the pipe is made of brick, then the edges of the apron adjacent to it should be bent at the ends and put them in the chinks. Stroebs are small holes in the bricks (but not in the joints between them), which are made with an angle grinder.
Under the bottom apron should be a layer of waterproofing. Waterproofing pipe on a roof of corrugated boarding is performed in the following order:
- The outer apron is installed on the sheet of corrugated board and is also attached to the crate. For the most part, it performs a decorative function, making the joint between the chimney and the roof smoother, but this element also provides additional protection.
- Aprons can be made your own from a continuous sheet of zinc, or you can buy a set of ready-made trimmers. The first option is more complicated, as it requires self-cutting and bending the edges of the hole in the sheet. But the second option involves additional spending money.
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Parts of the apron adjacent to the chimney should be sealed with sealant.
Under the pipes with a circular cross section to cut holes in the corrugated board and in the roof pie is more difficult than under the rectangular chimneys, but they can be insulated with simple methods. Master-Flush nozzles are used for this. This rubber or silicone products in the form of a stepped pyramid, with a circular cross section. They fit tightly around the chimney and are securely attached to the sheet of corrugated sheeting.
The base of the nozzle is made of aluminum. The reverse side of the product has a corrugated surface, which increases its tightness.
So, how to trim the pipe on the roof profiled sheeting, if it has a circular cross section? Before installing the nozzle, it is necessary to cut off as many pyramid rings as will ensure that the diameter of the hole is 20% less than the diameter of the pipe. Master-Flush is then stretched along the pipe from top to bottom. The base is glued to the sheet of corrugated sheeting with silicone and fastened to it with screws. The place of contact of rings of the product to the chimney is sealed with silicone.
You can also seal round pipes with self-adhesive lead tape.
For many years, corrugated sheet is one of the most popular, affordable and common. It is very widely used to cover the roof due to a long series of positive properties, excellent technical and operational data: light weight, ease of installation, attractive appearance, a wide choice of colors, high quality coating, protecting against corrosion and long service life.
Despite the high quality of the roof of corrugated board, there are some weak points to which you need to pay special attention. the joints. In these areas leakage, moisture penetration, damage to rafters and coating most often can occur.
There is the following technology, how to make a hole in the profiled sheet under the pipe:
- First, with a permanent marker mark the place of its placement on the roof.
- The size of the cross-sectional elements of the chimney is chosen based on the recommendations of the manufacturer of the heating unit. The thicker and higher the pipe, the easier the smoke goes out of the stove. The main thing is that at the connection between the elements there was no gap.
- Cut a hole with an angle grinder with a thin blade for metal work, stepping inward from the drawn line by a few centimeters. It is necessary to cut profiled sheeting accurately and slowly to avoid jagged edges of cuts.
- In the corners of the hole make short cuts to bend the edges of corrugated board upwards.
- Similar passageway is made in the ceiling. Then install a metal box designed to connect the pipe to the rafters. The chimney is laid through the hole that is inside the box.
- From the exit cut out in the roof remove waterproofing and vapor barrier material, as well as insulation.
For cold areas, where the thickness of insulation material is more than 15 centimeters, you need to use a sandwich pipe with two layers of metal and a layer of insulation between them.
When the preparations for how to bring the chimney through the profiled sheeting is complete, it should be properly connected and put into operation the chimney, for which purpose:
- Need to stick a pipe through an opening in the box and direct it toward the roof, and the edges of waterproofing material adhesive tape to fix the surface of the chimney.
- In the box is tightly filled with expanded clay or mineral wool.
- Put a rubber or silicone seal on the pipe, protecting the outlet from water seepage. To improve waterproofing adhere sealant to the profiled sheeting, using a fire retardant sealant.
- Flue outlet structure is superimposed segments to the required height, while the joints are tightened with galvanized steel clamps.
- Install the outer apron, having the color of the roof covering, which will cover the box and rubber seals.
Features installation adjacency at a conclusion of a chimney on a slope
Rules for the device chimney and ventilation ducts regulated SNIP 41-01-2003 “Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning. In this case there are no requirements for the location of chimneys in the regulatory documents. Clearly and unambiguously regulated only the height of the chimney.
Definition of the height of the chimney relative to the roof ridge
Most experts believe that the conclusion of the pipe through the decking is better to locate as close to the roof ridge of the building. In this case in the cold zone is the smallest part of it, and this significantly reduces the likelihood of condensation when cooling flue gases. This phenomenon is quite unpleasant, since the condensate formed on the outside or inside surface of the chimney contains aggressive acids, destroying the brickwork chimneys.
Very often the layout of the house does not allow for flue and ventilation ducts in the location of the roof ridge. The case where the adjacency of the chimney to the profiled sheeting is on the slope of the roof, the most difficult regarding the arrangement of waterproofing.
Slope at the outlet of the chimney through the profiled sheeting
With this version of the location of the pipe, of particular importance is the correct installation of the upper part of the apron, as it needs to take away all the water flowing down to the pipe located above the slope of the roof. The upper part of the apron must wind under the corrugated board.
The most complicated abutment in the case when the width of the pipe is more than 80 cm. For this width, it is necessary to make a ramp in the upper part of the pipe to divert water away from the center of the pipe. Perform razlankku on roofs made of corrugated sheeting is difficult enough. In this case above the pipe formed two short valley, which should perform the same technology as the valley in the roof plane.
No fewer problems arise during the passage of chimneys or vents through the roof with pre-insulated roof pie. The main difficulty here is the necessity to guarantee fire protection and at the same time the continuity of the vapour barrier and the water insulation.
The chimney should not be located close to the wooden rafters. Therefore, the passage of the chimney is usually performed in a separate box consisting of two rafters located near the chimney, and two beams fixed between these rafters below and above the chimney. Distance from rafters and cross bars to the chimney choose on the basis of fire safety requirements. Depending on the material from which the pipe, this size should be from 130 to 250 mm.
Inside the box is filled with non-combustible insulation of high density basalt fiber, since this material is less hygroscopic than conventional roof insulation. In this case, in order to ensure sealed roofing, fabric vapor- and waterproofing in place of passage of the pipe cut an envelope, the edges of which are fixed outside the wooden box.
Before you cut the decking under the chimney, in the place of passage must perform a solid crate. It allows you to securely fix the bottom plate and the edge of the bottom flashing roofing near the walls of the pipe.
- How to cover a single pitch roof with trapezoidal sheeting? Do you want to know the advantages of a pitched roof with corrugated board?? You need information on how to make it with your own hands? You need to know the features of a single pitched roof with trapezoidal sheet metal? Read article!
- Roofing with trapezoidal sheeting with their own hands All about how to make a roof of corrugated board with their own hands, without the help of professionals. From the selection and delivery of corrugated sheeting to mounting and safety precautions. Concise and easy-to-follow instructions for making a roof of corrugated board, which contains a description of all phases of construction.
- The device valley roof Do you have a complex roof? Then you should definitely know how to properly make a valley. Read the article and learn how to make a valley for a roof of corrugated board, what its device and how to seal it.
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Rules of installation of chimneys are denoted in SNiP 41-01-2003 “Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning. So in SNIP there is a clear recommendation about the height of the pipe, which depends on its location:
- If the chimney is within 1,5 m of the ridge, it has to be 30 cm higher than the roof.
- If the chimney is located within 1,5-3 meters of the ridge, its height must match the height of the roof.
- If the chimney is located within 3-10 meters from the ridge, the height of the pipe should be 12 degrees below the ridge.
Follow these recommendations is very important.
If you lower the height of the chimney draft may be insufficient, overstated increases the risk of condensation, and it is very harmful, since it contains acid, destroying stove brick.
But in SNIP does not specify where to preferably locate the passage of the pipe through the roof of corrugated boarding. At the same time, experts advise placing it on the ridge or as close to it.
- First, it will prevent smoke from entering the attic.
- Secondly, in the cold zone will remain the smallest part of the chimney, which will prevent the formation of condensation.
To the place where the chimney exit did not leak it is necessary to properly perform adjacency. To do this, the so-called apron is made. Its main task is to collect and divert water that may fall into the gap between the pipe and corrugated boarding. As a rule, do lower (main) and upper (decorative) adjacency.
For the bottom bracket will need a sheet of galvanized steel, and standard strips of the same steel 150 to 230 mm. On such strips at the top there is a bend under the chimney hole 20 mm, and at the bottom of the bend to protect against leaks 16 mm. The order of installation is as follows:
- Installing a sheet of galvanized steel from the bottom edge of the chimney to the eaves. Instead of it allowed to use a tie.
- Chimney drilling. For this adjoining strips are firmly attached to the pipe, a pencil or a marker marks the line for a trimmer on the edge of the bend for milling. It is convenient to produce reaming itself angular grinder with a stone grinding wheel.
- It is very important to properly bend the sheets one under the other. Therefore, the first side strip is set at the bottom.
- Next, the side plates are installed.
- The upper ledge should be installed last.