How to make a solar lantern with your own hands (Part 1)
Solar lanterns can be safely divided into several groups, these are “author’s”, made from some. something quite unique and witty in thought, the mini. spotlights, designed to light in the direction, or illumination of the top of flower beds and ordinary soldiers of dacha lighting. classic lanterns on a pole designed to illuminate the paths. How and what they can be made from, I will tell in this article. Also, there will be considered some variants of design of electronics for shady parts of the garden, where it is difficult to recharge the flashlight from the sun and the brightness of the lighting should be sacrificed a little. The basis of almost any homemade flashlight is its plafond made of plastic or glass, made of an intricate bottle, glass or shot glass, a plafond bought in a store, or left over from an old chandelier, it can be a child’s toy, or what is left of it. By the way, my lanterns get their names from the source of the plafond, such as Caprice, Mill, Nescafe, Lukoshko, Grappa, etc.As practice has shown, the most successful plafonds for classic lanterns on the pole are ordinary inexpensive shot glasses. They are easy to clean, do not cloud over time and do not become brittle, unlike the plafonds of Chinese flashlights. And by picking up the plate with a beautiful grooving, you can get original light patterns and a unique look. For example, the lantern made from a Caprice shot glass has a light pattern with diverging rays of light:
And this is what a lantern with a simple transparent lantern made of a liquor glass looks like:
And in general, if you use your imagination, you can also use completely unexpected glass or plastic objects as lanterns. This can be a run-of-the-mill condiment mill:
And these are historical photos of one of the very first lanterns made from a Crimean grappa bottle and long since broken:
To show the basics of assembly, I made a small batch of four lanterns:
As “boys for beating” in the photo on the left a flashlight from Globus, on the right from Leroy. Inexpensive fluted shot glasses bought at Globus were used as plafonds:
In the bottom of the shot glass we drill a hole with a diameter of 6. 8 millimeters with a stoneware drill, such as this:
It is most convenient to drill on a drilling machine, setting the rpm between 800 and 1000 and lowering the shot glass into a shallow container with water for better cooling. But in a pinch a regular screwdriver will do, in fact I used it almost all my headlamps for flashlights and drilled. When drilling be sure to hold the glass piece with your hand dressed in a cloth glove to avoid cutting yourself if the glass breaks because of the excessive force or inner tension. But at the same time be careful that your glove does not get caught in the drill bit.
The base for the solar panel is cut out of a 5. 6 mm thick PVC sheet with an electric jigsaw, or as in my case on the CNC:
This plastic is widely used in advertising and its scraps can be found in advertising offices. Use a soldering iron to melt an M4 furniture nut into the center:
Wires are soldered to the solar panel. In order to eliminate the possibility of short-circuiting the solar panel with the furniture nut, the tracks immediately behind the soldering points are cut:
Solar cells are used four-cell, with an operating voltage of 2 volts. As the calculations shown in the article “Solar flashlights. we need brighter,” it is better to use solar panels with dimensions of 60×65 mm or more, and before you glue the solar panel to the base it must be checked. In my experience, in a batch of ten solar panels is usually one gets in the form of “third grade is not defective”, and in the early days of my experiments with the use of solar energy in my first order of ten solar panels, only four came functional. Putting the panels in a row and taking turns photographing what voltage they give, I sent photos to the seller and the incident was solved in my favor. Conclusion. do not chase after the cheapest and use stores with several years of experience and a good reputation. To test the solar panels will need a lamp with an incandescent lamp of 75 watts and a multimeter. Switch the multimeter to the DC measurement limit of 10 A and connect the solar panel to it. At a serviceable battery at a distance of 2. Fifty centimeters from the incandescent lamp the current should change smoothly within 0.010.4 amps.
The base of the panel and the bottom of the solar panel degrease with alcohol, or thinner, and avoid getting the thinner on the front of the solar panel to avoid clouding, then glue the solar panel to the base with waterproof adhesive, such as this:
How to cut round glass?
Now let’s break down the easiest way to cut round shaped glass. To do this, you need to take a glass cutter and devices to cut an even circle. First mark on the glass the center of the circle, then attach the suction cup to the place where you marked the center. Tie a rope to the installed suction cup and tie the glass cutter to the rope. The length of the rope from the suction cup to the cutter should be equal to the radius of the circle you want to cut. After all the preparations are made you can cut a circle on the glass with the glass cutter. Now draw “rays” from the circle on the rest of the glass with the glass cutter. And after that pincers to break off superfluous pieces which are between carried out earlier “beams”.
It is best to mark the cut line beforehand with a marker pen. Experienced glaziers immediately take a glass cutter and ruler in their hands.
Apply it to the sheet, at a distance of 3-4 mm from the desired line when working with a diamond tool, and 1-2 mm when working with a roller glass cutter. Hold it like a pencil: perpendicular to the sheet (see “Working with a glass cutter”). Fig. 2). The trimmer line can be fed through easily and quickly, with one move of the hand. The table should not wobble or vibrate.
If the diamond glass cutter is operated correctly, a slight crackling sound is heard and a thin, barely noticeable scratch remains on the glass.
Press lightly on the roller glass cutter, and the trimmer line is a deeper, whitish.
After that, the sheet is moved to the edge of the table so that the line for the trimmer cut protrudes by 3-4 mm. Then hold the glass with both hands and gently but firmly break off a piece with a downward movement. If the trimmer’s line is done according to all the rules, then the glass of a small thickness will separate practically by itself. Sheets that are more than 5 mm thick must first be slightly tapped on the cut line from the underside with the glass cutter mandrel or a rubber mallet. if the piece of glass needed is too narrow, use pliers to break it off.
Typical mistakes made by novice glass cutters:
- If you are too slow in drawing the line with the glass cutter;
- Excessive pressure on it, which creates a deep groove with jagged edges;
- Repeating the cut line with it to be more reliable;
- Loosening the pressure on the glass cutter a few millimeters before the edge of the glass.
Cutting glass with a diamond saw
If you need to cut round glass and do not have a glass cutter or pipe cutter, you can use a diamond saw. The diamond saw is a smooth band with a diamond coating where the teeth of an ordinary saw are.
In order to work with the diamond saw it is necessary to cut a template of a circle to be cut out from cardboard or plywood. After that the cut out stencil must be glued to the glass. When these preparations are done you can start cutting with the diamond saw. The glass you cut a circle from must be constantly moistened while sawing, so the cutting of round glass must take place in the bathroom. If you decide to cut a circle out of glass with a diamond saw, you must have patience and cut the glass with great care.
How to cut glass without a glass cutter
Before we get into the details of the glass cutting techniques we would like to remind you of safety. Always wear work gloves and safety glasses to prevent cuts and small pieces of glass from getting into your eyes. Be careful not to put too much pressure on the glass.
A very common method, used mostly for cutting glass bottles. Straight glasses, also can be cut by this method, but with a little nuance. All you need to make an even break in the glass is a piece of woolen thread, flammable liquid (alcohol, kerosene, etc.) and a bottle of water.д.) and a container of cold water.
How to hand cut a glass circle
Soak the thread in flammable liquid and fix it on the glass along the cut line. We light it, wait for it to burn through, and then immediately place it in cold water or pour it over the place where it is heated. The main thing is that the glass cools down as quickly as possible and breaks from the temperature difference. A “click” sound indicates the success of the work done. If the glass is not cracked, you can try to repeat the operation.
This method quite evenly chipped bottles, but does not always work with large glass sizes. As it is very flammable and requires a fire extinguisher on hand or a container of water, which is already a must.
With the soldering iron
A very interesting, but very slow way to cut glass thermally. suitable for shape-cutting, but will also make an ordinary straight line for the trimmer without problems. This operation requires a file and a heating element (soldering iron or pyrometer).
After marking the line for the trimmer for the future cut on the glass, we take a file and make a small groove with it at the very edge. 1-2 mm away from it, heat the place with a soldering iron until a micro-crack is formed between it and the groove. Then we step aside from the crack itself for the same distance and gradually move to the finish point. It takes a long time to cut the glass this way, but you can get any shape. To speed things up a bit, you can periodically cool the glass by putting a damp cloth over it.
Use scissors in water
A simple method of directional glass cleaving. Allows you to easily cut circular shapes, but is not suitable for creating straight lines. For this cutting you will need a pair of scissors and a container of water, which will serve as a kind of lubricant. The maximum thickness of the glass must not exceed 4 mm.
The process of cutting with this method is very simple. We take a piece of the processed glass, immerse it in water and use scissors to cut small pieces from the edges. Water will keep the glass from cracking, allowing you to make a controlled chip. You can cut both oval and circular shapes in this way.
with a diamond wheel
Not the safest way to cut glass and requires a high degree of care and must follow safety rules. Can easily chip glass and launch a sliver in either direction. Otherwise the method is quite effective and can accomplish the task. For cutting you will need a special tool (angle grinder, drills, or grinders) with a diamond wheel of thickness 0.1 mm.
The cutting process itself is quite simple, but requires a certain amount of skill and a steady hand to guide the tool clearly along the line. We put a piece of glass to be processed on a flat place, then we take the cutter and run the disk with a line for a trimmer on the glass surface. The main thing is not to plunge deep, but only slightly touch, so that a small groove is formed, similar to a wide line for a trimmer from a glass cutter. Next, just break the glass in the right place.
To reduce the chance of glass breaking and to reduce the amount of glass dust, you can periodically sprinkle the place where you cut with water.
Another way to cut glass at home without using a glass cutter or expensive power tools. You will need a file and some experience in working with glass. Note that a file must have angles, so a round one will not do.
To cut the glass, it is enough to make several notches on its surface with the file’s angle. It is necessary to press on a file a little bit stronger than average, that the effort was enough for formation of a distinct groove, similar to a cut of a glass cutter. When the place of the chip is marked, just break the glass on the edge of the table or put a match under the place of the cut.
This method requires some skill, and if you are cutting glass for the first time, we strongly recommend that you practice on small, unwanted splinters before moving on to the base material.
Victory Drill Bit
If you know what glass cutting is all about, then we suggest you consider another way to cut glass without a glass cutter. With some experience, one drill bit with a pobedite tip may be enough for this operation. The main thing is to have a drill bit that is more or less new, with sharp corners on the head.
The process of cutting glass with a glass borer is much the same as with a regular roller glass cutter. Of the differences we can distinguish a higher force of pressure, but otherwise all the actions are standard. Lay the glass on a flat surface, mark the trimmer line for the cut, attach the bar, and guide the trimmer line from top to bottom. Before cutting, turn the tip so that the sharpest corner makes contact with the glass. After obtaining a clear line for the trimmer, break the glass along the cutting line.
Cutting Glass with a Glass Cutter
In essence, the process of cutting glass is quite unusual, but it may seem complicated only when you first try. If you perform the necessary actions in the right order, as well as cut with a certain speed and force, everything will definitely work out. The following step by step guide explains how to cut glass correctly with a glass cutter, but in spite of the vastness of the theory we recommend that beginners practice on less valuable splinters first. It is better to work on the base material, at least after a couple of successful cuts.
The first thing to do is to prepare the glass for work. To do this, its surface must be cleaned of dust and dirt. The line for the cut trimmer on the clean glass will be more uniform, which will increase the chances of an even cut. Cleaned surface should be wiped with newspaper and degreased with alcohol or kerosene. After all the procedures, leave the glass for 10 minutes to let the remaining moisture evaporate.
It is better to use felt-tip pens or a glass cutter for marking the points on the glass. To do this, simply measure both sides of the glass cutter as required, apply a ruler to the marked points and mark out a line for the trimmer of the future cut.
The most responsible step of the whole process is to run the glass cutter across the glass. Take a roller or oil glass cutter (the diamond one is described in the video below) and draw a short trimmer line up to 5 mm from the upper edge. Next, from there lead the cutting roller to the end of our mark. Move the glass cutter across the glass in a precise, steady movement with slightly above-average pressure. If the cutter is sharp and the force applied is optimal, you will hear a slight crackling sound. The resulting line for the trimmer should be uniform and translucent. Intermittent expansion or line breakage, can form due to a blunted cutter or too much pressure. It is not recommended to go over the same area twice. It is better to step back 5-10 mm from the initial mark and make a new cut.
The culminating step in cutting glass is to separate it. There are a few things you can do to control the cut. It is always better to start with the most delicate action, and if there is no result, increase the load (within reason).
We put the glass on the table or other more or less flat surface so that the line for the cut trimmer is parallel to the edge and goes out of it for a couple of centimeters. Then take the glass cutter and lightly tap with the iron tip near one of the edges of the cutting line on the underside of the glass. When a small crack appears, simply break off the hanging piece of glass with a light movement of the hand.
If for a couple of dozen strokes, the crack is still not formed, go to plan B. We put a match, a nail or a toothpick under the edge of the glass along the cutting line and press the piece of glass from the sides lightly. If the glass is still intact after moderate pressure, you can resort to the roughest method. Align the cutter line with the edge of the table or other surface and press the part you want to break off with your hand. Wear gloves and safety glasses when doing this. Do not strain yourself too much. If the glass does not break, it means that your trimmer blade is not deep enough and it is better to try a new one and pay attention to the sharpness of your tool.
After a successful glass break, you only need to secure it by scraping the edges with a fine-grained emery or a bar. We hope that the above guide will help you make an accurate glass cut. For better demonstration, we recommend to see how to use the glass cutter with a wheel and a diamond.
Small round glass
Please note! We work with any volume! At the order of cutting glass or a mirror from 20m 2 at optimum cutting the price from a site is valid. Feel the benefits with us!
Glass cutting. An activity that requires a high degree of precision. Many modern products have small size, so the necessary glass for them is difficult to cut unprofessionals. Our company uses only modern equipment that meets European standards, applies customer drawings and templates, standard patterns.
We can accurately cut out small glass with thickness from 1-3 mm and diameter of 20 mm to 200 mm, correctly process edges to give the product a safe and finished appearance.
You want to replace cracked or shattered round glass because it is expensive to buy a new product?
Contact our workshop “ACTUAL GLASS. High-class specialists will cut:
- The glass on a handheld or wall clock;
- Glass for electricity, water, heat and gas meters;
- Glass for a lamp;
High quality mirror cutting. one of the directions of our company. Any mechanical damage. chips, cracks, scratches. interfere with driving a car, can lead to road accidents. Buying a new headlight or mirror will be more expensive than simply replacing the glass. We will cut mirrors to view inaccessible areas, blind spots in the car, a round mirror on a scooter, motorcycle or bicycle. It will be more profitable and cheaper to order from us a mirror for quick application or correction of makeup on the road, than to buy a new mirror.
“ACTUAL GLASS” and its friendly staff will select different forms of glass, produce a batch of any volume. You can make a gift to employees of your company, ordering us glass for frames with interesting photos, replace the glass in the grandfather clock, thus prolonging the life of an antique or a mirror, carefully stored in your family.
Cutting curved glass
Our needs are not always limited to straight edges. Some projects may require rounded or wavy glass. Cutting curved glass can be a bit more complicated than straight cutting, but it does not require much experience. There are a few things to consider before you cut curved glass with a glass cutter.
To be able to cut curved glass more accurately and easily, it is a good idea to prepare a template with the desired shape in advance. It is better to cut the template from a piece of particle board, 5 mm thick or thicker. When marking the future template, take into account that the roller of the glass cutter will not fit tightly against its walls, but with an indentation of 2-3 mm. To prevent the cut guide from riding on the glass when cutting, you can glue some strips of masking tape to its underside.
When the line is ready, we attach it to the cut surface and draw the line for the trimmer with the glass cutter. Then gently tap the line on the underside. If you are cutting a shape inside the glass, you can draw lines from the shape to the borders of the glass to make it easier to remove, so that you can neatly chip away at the edges.
Cutting glass is not always successful the first time. This almost jewel-like process requires a certain amount of skill. Practice, and you will soon be doing this job with ease and quality.
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