What and how to cut paving tiles at home: angle grinder, machine, guillotine
The question of what to cut paving tiles, relevant to all those involved in the arrangement of the yard area, creates a garden or walkways, installing coverings of various types of this material. Installing tiles without cutting is virtually impossible. there will still be areas where you need to install a smaller section or a different shape, especially when it comes to shaped tiles.
Incorrect cutting of paving slabs can lead not only to considerable financial expenses (the bigger and more complex is the configuration of the surface to be laid, the more tiles will be cut and, accordingly, the more waste will be produced if the task is performed incorrectly), but also risk to health and life. The use of the tool assumes knowledge of safety rules and peculiarities of the work.
In many ways, the difficulty of cutting influences the shape of the tiles: square and rectangular tiles are easier to mark and cut than waves, hexagons, Z profile, etc.д. In the process of laying paving stones usually form certain drawings, ornaments, requiring a careful adjustment of elements to size. In addition, you need to be able to properly handle and edge cut tiles so that the coverage is neat and aesthetically pleasing.
Tools for cutting tiles are used different, the choice depends on the skills of the master, the type of tiles, conditions and peculiarities of work. But first of all, you need to study all the existing technologies.
Types of concrete curbs and kerbs
Concrete curbs are the most common and come in a variety of sizes. They fall into two categories:
- Roadstone. Large and taller, often with fittings inside (one or two steel rods 12-14 mm in diameter). It is used to separate the roadway and pedestrian area.
- Curbstone (also called curb, garden or pavers). Smaller in size and weight, without fittings. Pedestrian walkways are usually separated from lawns. It can withstand a short automobile collision. With more serious and permanent loads, they are undesirable to stack because they deteriorate.
Types of borders for dividing paths
Other types of curbs are not used because they have insufficient strength.
Roads are not always straight. there are curves. It is not difficult to make steep curves at an angle. Place at right angles and secure joints with concrete mortar. For smooth curves, there are radius pieces with different radii of curvature. They can be used to create a fence for round, oval flower beds.
Curb blocks are usually 1000 mm long and are designed to separate paths from the fertile ground. 850 mm long. There are also 500 and 400 mm elements. These are usually curbs for paving slabs. They are produced not only by cast concrete technology, but also by vibratory compression technology, according to which paving tiles are made.
Width 200, 180 mm (road stone), width 150, 100, 80 mm (curbstone).
The manufacturing algorithm is common for all forms:
- First, they are well lubricated from the inside with cheap vegetable or machine oil and placed on a horizontal surface;
- and then fill them with the mortar they’ve just prepared. In the absence of a vibrating table, the concrete mixture as it is laid is constantly compacted with a wooden pusher, simultaneously letting the air out of it;
- When pouring horizontal forms with cement mortar without crushed stone, after filling them up to the half, place the armature on the mortar;
- having filled the form up to the edges, the concrete is leveled and left for at least one day for setting in the room or in the shade;
- after removing the molds, still wet curbs dry in the same conditions for about a week, periodically spraying with water to prevent the appearance of cracks.
In self-made such curbs can give free rein to imagination and decorate them with pebbles, broken glass or mosaic, laying them before pouring them into the bottom of the mold. Or by stamping patterns on the not yet cured material. By making a longitudinal depression in the side of the blocks, it will be possible to lay a LED street light.
Glowing curb in the evening looks very spectacular Source avatars.mds.yandex.net
See also: Specialized in landscaping
Installed ready-made and homemade curbs are also the same. But there is a difference between making a curb for a flowerbed or for a bulk path.
If the flowerbed is located on the lawn, it is sufficient to simply fence it with concrete products, setting them on a sandy cushion, which is filled with a shallow trench on the perimeter of the flower bed. For stability, their own weight is enough. But in the piece elements of the curb you can still install metal pins when casting, 15-20 cm protruding from the bottom of the product, and drive them into the ground when installing.
Curbs along the paths are under great stress, they must prevent their deformation and “creeping”, so the blocks are mounted on the cement mortar. For which the bottom of the excavated trench is rammed, sand or gravel is poured on it with a thin layer, the mortar is poured on top and the blocks are placed on it. They are aligned by a pre-tensioned cord or level. Once the base of the curbs grinds with the mortar, the trench is filled with soil and compacted.
Installation of curbs on the mortar Source i.ytimg.com
Pouring into the formwork
Making piece borders takes a lot of time, especially with a limited number of forms. There is another way to make borders inexpensive and fast with your own hands. it consists of pouring concrete into the formwork, mounted immediately on the spot. Its main disadvantage is that it does not allow you to play with shapes, and fences can only be made with a simple section. But the configuration can be any: curved, radiused, polygonal. And seamless.
For the arrangement of the formwork you can use the same boards, strips of plywood, plastic and metal. An interesting result is obtained if you make a formwork of ribbon plastic curb corrugated, installed in two rows in parallel.
As with the installation of unit blocks, a trench with a sandy cushion is prepared, a formwork is installed in it, which is fixed with props, heavy stones and tied down with slats. The mortar is poured into it, tamped and leveled on the upper edge.
Making a monolithic concrete curb Source i.ytimg.com
Remove the formwork after 1-2 days, but keep an eye on the concrete monolith for a few more days, protecting it from the sun and wetting it with water.
In general, paving tile cutting is the process of cutting a concrete block with m granite rubble with a thickness of 20 to 80 mm. Slabs must be cut both along the element, and across, as well as at an angle. The length of the cut can vary from 10 to 60 cm, but the most common length is in the range of 10-30 cm. The processed concrete has a dense structure, since it is made by vibrocompression and contains a filler in the form of granite (or other) crushed stone of medium and small fractions.
Shapes and sizes of paving slabs.
The entire process of obtaining an element of the required size can be divided into several stages: marking, cutting and processing the cut. The complexity of the process and its volume depends on the type of surface to be laid. If a simple row laying of standard rectangular bars (bricks, paving stones) is provided, the task is simplified. only the transverse cutting of tiles is required.
A more complicated problem arises when forming a specific ornament, and even in different colors. In this case it is important to accurately mark the tiles, as the paving slabs will have to be cut in different directions, i.e., at different angles.ч. at different angles; in this case it is difficult to do without the final finishing of the element directly at its laying.
The most difficult task is the corner cut for inserting the element. Such a cut is rarely made, but when creating a pattern the possibility of it is not excluded. This process is carried out with the help of hand tools, such as a hacksaw for metal.
When planning to cut concrete tiles, you should immediately think about protective measures. During the high-speed process, a huge amount of tiny harmful dust rises, from which it is necessary to protect the eyes, faces. Work with a respirator, goggles, and it is advisable to cover your ears with headphones. It is also good to protect the whole body with close-fitting clothing.
How to properly install curbs, before or after the laying of paving tiles?
This question is difficult to answer unequivocally, because each option has pros and cons.
- Install at once.This option is good for beginners. Curbs clearly frame the area to be improved, and simplify the task of respecting the boundaries. To save paving elements it is necessary to calculate the distance between curbs, which should be a multiple of the paving width. When calculating, it should be remembered that there is a gap between the elements of paving. 2-4 mm. For beginners, it is better to use the dimensions of an already ready-made path.
- Mounting after laying paving stone.Such a choice allows you to rationally use the tiles and avoid sawing it.
Brick sawing discs
Cutting-off wheels for cutting brick blocks must be chosen properly. Suitable discs are divided into two categories:
The main advantage of the first group of wheels is their relatively low cost. But abrasive nozzles often have to be replaced due to their failure.
Abrasive discs can break during the work or crack, deform. that is the danger of using them.
Diamond discs are considered the best choice for cutting brick blocks. They are made of strong steel grades. These tools are characterized by a long service life. They are safer than their abrasive counterparts. There are several kinds of diamond discs:
The products of the first group are characterized by low price. But they wear out more quickly in use and become warmer than other competitors. Segmented discs are characterized by a better diversion of brick particles from the cut. They also heat up slowly. This variety is a good option when cutting is done dry.
The serrated-edge bit group is the strongest among the other varieties. They are used in both wet and dry cutting methods. They have a long service life.
For fast work and quality results it is recommended to prepare all the necessary tools in advance:
- Guillotine knife (you can take a special electric circular saw instead);
- Grinding machine;
- Diamond disc (may also need to be sanded);
- Metal hacksaw;
- A tape measure wheel;
- Construction pencil;
- Metal ruler (if necessary, conveyor).
Sawing concrete without dust
On construction sites and during home repairs, you often have to cut concrete with an angle grinder. You can’t do without this very dusty procedure, especially when installing concealed wiring. To get the job done the tool can be equipped with diamond blades of different diameters, either straight or segmented. The size of the wheels depends on both the power tool model used and the required cutting depth.
To cut without dust an unreinforced concrete block of small size or make a chisel, proceed as follows:
- On a working surface with a building pencil or a marker to put marking lines;
- The marked area with a nearby zone with a sprayer or brush (even a rag) is moistened with water, which is then periodically watered through the furrow to be cut;
- Saw concrete, regularly take out the disk and cool it with water.
Cutting concrete with the considered wet method will not completely get rid of dust. Constant irrigation is necessary for this.
To saw concrete without creating dust, some masters use a special homemade cover, which is almost airtight. Dust removal is ensured by a vacuum cleaner connected to the machine.
During cutting of bricks, glass, concrete, wood, plywood and other considered materials it is necessary to use personal protection equipment: goggles, respirator or mask, earphones. Clothing and shoes must also be suitable.
The angle grinder in operation must be in good working order. Cutting wheels must be of good quality and free of defects. The discs and the power tool itself must be inspected before the work is performed. Carry out sawing should take a comfortable, stable body position.
Do not use drugs or alcoholic beverages at work. General well-being should also be normal. the angle grinder should be constantly kept under control, because you can get very serious injury. The more powerful the machine is, the more carefully and cautiously you should handle it.