How to cut the cable duct
Traditionally, the laying of electrical wiring in residential and industrial premises is performed open or hidden inside the building elements. The use of special plastic boxes allows to increase electrical safety and improve the design of rooms with open wiring.
They are always made with a flat base, which is designed for attachment to the flat surface of the building structure.
To ensure that the final work is aesthetically pleasing, allows the reliable operation of electricity and was carried out at minimal cost, you must consistently follow four simple rules:
To think over the course of its implementation and to translate the idea of the project on paper;
procure the necessary amount of accessories and tools, selecting them to meet the specific technical conditions of the installation of pipelines in the premises;
to apply the routes of the lines on the building structures;
The quality of its implementation affects the number and composition of the necessary procurement and labor costs for installation, which greatly affects the timing of work and its cost. For these reasons, drawing up a project is an important and responsible moment, although some owners neglect it, making various mistakes.
At home the plan of installation of cable ducts made of PVC can be executed as a rough draft on a simple sheet of paper. The main attention should be paid to the accuracy of the plan and the measurements, which can be performed with a simple tape measure.
It is necessary to make a plan both during the initial construction, and during the next reconstruction of the premises or refinement of the electrical scheme.
The sequence of the project:
determine on building structures the location of switching elements (switches, sockets, junction boxes) and consumers of electricity, including lights, portable and stationary electrical appliances;
planning of lines of power wiring, computer networks and low-current circuits, determining the circumvention of possible critical routes around water and gas pipes, heating and sewage systems;
sketching on paper of the rooms and drawing the planned locations on them with the designation of dimensions to calculate the need for materials.
During the planning process, it must be clearly defined:
- Installation locations of wiring terminations;
- configuration of routes of cable ducts to them, carried out on the walls, floor or ceiling;
- The composition of cables and wires for each connecting section and their cross-sectional area;
- The length of the entire line and any of its elements;
- Interior design concepts.
Selection of accessories and tools
This stage is approached after the project is completely solved. Otherwise there will be errors associated with the loss of material.
If we lay several cables in parallel, we choose a box design that suits their cross-sectional dimensions. It is taken into account that it is allowed to install electrical wires and low-voltage circuits in one cable duct, which is divided by special partitions.
For fastening on the large spans between the supports the configuration of a narrow tray with high edges is better than the wide form with low walls because it can withstand a little more load. But in this case it is more difficult to lay cables.
Based on the scheme of the project are determined by the required internal dimensions of the boxes for each section and is divided into main and branch with smaller cross-sections. Accordingly, the length of each profile is calculated.
PVC trunking are equipped with additional accessories, allowing them to fix the wiring in a certain way and laying of tracks at different angles, fixing housings of all kinds of outlets and switches.
Many trunkings have devices for built-in installation of outdoor sockets and switches. This not only makes the job easier, but also looks good.
Radially mounted inserts protect the wiring from mechanical influences on the wall joints, give the construction greater strength. Fixing bars allow you to achieve a tight fit inner surface of the cover to the box. The number of all items to be purchased must be calculated after drawing up a project before going to the store.
In this case, it is important to study the products offered by several manufacturers and choose the most suitable by technical parameters and design. Focus attention not only on the state of integrity of the ends and surfaces, but also the work of the locks.
Individual cable ducts are available with prepared holes that have an oval shape for attaching to the wall. They allow a slight shift in the axial direction of the enclosure during installation after installing the fastener before the final fixation of tightening screws.
Special trunking constructions can be mounted even inside the filled floors.
According to the degree of protection of installed cable box designs are divided into classes:
- IP 00. when all the elements are made in a straight line and not covered with covers;
- IP 20. when the straight line is made with a perforated base and covered with covers;
- IP 40. straight trunking made of unperforated elements, closed with covers;
- IP 44. same as IP 40, but with an additional band on each connecting element covered by covers.
The method of fixing boxes with screws is not the only. Can be used:
Which of these is best suited to specific conditions should be determined individually. However, when performing trunking inside the house most quickly assembled with a construction gun. The use of dowels and self-tapping screws is associated with drilling. And fixing with adhesives is recommended for small areas.
As the individual designs of boxes can be placed between the vertical joints of walls or used as a ceiling or floor plinths, they are made in a shape close to a triangle. Other cable channels, mounted at a distance from the perpendicular surfaces, are created with a rectangular profile or close to it.
Classification of cable channels
Using the cable channel allows you to secure the cable to the base of concrete, brick, wood, plasterboard, foam block, stone.
In this case, the methods of attachment will be different.
Depending on the room, the schematic layout of the wiring lines and the number of wires in them, it is recommended to use boxes of various types.
Their detailed classification is presented in the table.
|installation place||floor||According to their shape, shape is optimally adapted to the installation place;|
|color||available in different colors and shades||fit harmoniously into the interior of rooms|
|size||Different channel volume. for one, 2, 3 or more cables||Dimensions from 12×12 to 100×60 mm; have differently shaped corners. from sharp to rounded|
|number of locks||with one||2 latches. more securely hold the lid on the channel, reducing the possibility of deformation;|
|product material||aluminum||coated with film; a variety of shades gives an attractive appearance; fireproof|
|steel||installed indoors, outdoors; available with galvanized surface of different colors; not flammable; prone to corrosion if scratched|
The market allows you to choose products for specific conditions of use.
The most expensive variant is aluminum, the cheapest. plastic. the latter in any case should be taken, which do not burn, but melt.
During installation, the cable ducts are placed horizontally or vertically. Sloping sections are only allowed on stairs or attic floors. In the places of branching put junction box, in which all connections take place.
Methods of fixation
There are two ways to install cable channels: on dowels/self-tapping screws and on glue/sticky double-sided tape. The first method is universal. Suitable for all types of bases. Only the types of dowels must be chosen (under the plasterboard and foam blocks have their own fasteners). When choosing fasteners, look for dowels or self-tapping screws with large diameter heads so they do not tear the plastic. If you can not find them, you can use washers.
The amount of mounts on the tray of 2 m length (standard length) depends on how straight the wall is. If it is perfectly aligned, it is enough 3 fasteners. at the beginning, at the end and in the middle. If the wall is crooked, you need more fasteners. so that the tray is tight to the wall and “does not stick”. With a large number of cables or very crooked walls you may need to install them every 20 cm.
To mount cable channels on self-tapping screws or dowels, they do not burst, first drill a hole with a diameter slightly smaller than the diameter of the fastener. Then the tray is attached to the wall, mark the location of the holes with a marker / pencil / felt-tip pen. Remove the cable-channel, drill holes, install plastic plugs. Then attach the tray, fix it with dowel nails).
Tightening the fasteners, be careful. try not to damage the plastic
In some cases, you do not want to drill the surface. Then glue or adhesive tape can be used. Adhesive should be used with a quick initial adhesion. The tray does not weigh much, but it will “crawl” down if the fixation force is insufficient. To avoid this, you can install spacers in the opposite wall (if the distance allows) or fix the box with pieces of adhesive tape.
The adhesive tape requires a smooth, dust-free substrate. It is better to take it on a foam base. In this case, the requirements on the “smoothness” of the wall are reduced. The foam backing smoothes out small holes/depressions.
How and what to cut
If it is necessary to cut a piece of cable channel of a certain length, first put on the cover, align the edges. Then a marking is made on the tray and on the lid with a marker pen. Afterwards you can cut the cable duct separately, the tray and the cover. In this case their length will be the same.
To achieve an exact overlap in the places of cuts, you can use a joiner’s plier. Even better. find a special saw for plastic. In this case the cut will be neat and after a little trimming of the edge with emery paper the fit will be perfect.
It is better to cut cable trays with a metal saw with a fine tooth. The edge will be straight. If necessary, it can be ground with fine sandpaper. You can also use metal scissors, but then there is a high probability that the edges will fold and/or lose their perfect geometry.
General rules for marking QC
Properly made markings clearly indicate how to attach the cable channel to the wall, taking into account all the executive elements of electrical wiring. In order to apply the marking lines it is necessary to prepare:
- A ruler and a pencil;
- Construction level of bubble or other type;
- Chip cord, also called coated thread, with pigment.
The sequence of drawing the CC marking is as follows:
- In accordance with the architecture of the room and the wiring diagram from the switchboard determine the location of outlets, switches, junction boxes. Use a ruler to measure the optimum distance from the floor to the walls, corners, etc.п. With a pencil on the walls make the appropriate marks.
- In all places where the cable line is supposed to be laid, straight lines shall be drawn with a line cord.
- The construction level monitors the verticality and horizontality of the lines laid.
What are the dangers of a sharp knife: How to use it?
In the arsenal of tools of the house electrician there is always a set of knives.
They can perform a variety of all kinds of operations. Therefore, as a rule, have a professional sharpened blade, distinguished by a sharp cutting edge.
This sharpness is important for many operations, but when stripping electrical wiring, removing insulation, it can play a negative role. If you choose the wrong knife position, the metal wire will get scratched or cut.
How to Guide a Blade
Do not position the blade of the knife so that its cutting edge touches the metal of the wire. Such contact should be avoided.
The picture on the right shows another defect in the wire, copper oxide, caused by improper storage. It is better not to work with such cores, but as a last resort such places should be cleaned of corrosion.
I liked how accessibly the author of the video Rafis Fahrutdinov explained wire stripping techniques.
A stationary knife with a replaceable blade is very popular with do-it-yourselfers. Its sharpness is dangerous when cutting a dielectric layer: it is easy to damage a metal strand, and it is difficult to notice.
Despite all the versatility of cable boxes, you will need to perform proper installation of the elements. There are various options for this. The choice of a particular depends on the type of surface on which you plan to install the boxes. The following are common options for attaching cable ducts.
The specified fixing option is used on surfaces made of wood or drywall. Fastening is carried out with self-tapping wood screws, 40 mm in length. It is necessary to take into account the number and cross-section of wires to be laid. This factor determines the intervals of the screws. As a rule, it is enough to maintain a step in the range from 40 to 50 cm. For faster installation it is better to use an electric screwdriver.
Attaching the skirting board with cable duct with self-tapping screws
This method is relevant for concrete and brick walls, which are found in apartments and private households. For this you will need a six millimeter drill and dowel nails. The installation pitch of the fixing elements should be 45 cm. In this case, it is recommended to first make holes in the plastic box, and after transferring the fixing points to the wall, drill holes in it with a peorator.
Nail plugs for baseboards and plastic ducts
Using “klopov” is the best option for fixing cable channels on the aluminum profile or metal surface thickness less than 2 mm. “Clops” are self-tapping screws for metal, which are equipped with a press washer. Screwing them in does not require prior preparation of the surface, but it is better to use an electric screwdriver.
Self-tapping screws with a washer and drill
Fixing boxes for wiring without drilling is allowed in extreme cases when it is impossible to use any of the previously presented options. These situations are observed when mounting the trunking on a metal surface with a thickness of more than 2 mm, or on the tiles in the bathroom. As a rule, liquid nails are used in the form of an auxiliary fixing element.
Glue liquid nails for plastic panels
No construction or repair can be completed without installing cable duct in a newly built or renovated building. Safety and regulations of state standards require hidden installation of electrical wires, and cable-channel looks more aesthetic in comparison with corrugated pipe.
Skillful installation boxes (cable channels), laying wiring in them and closing. refers to the work of the high category of complexity. Cable-channels have a huge number of sizes by cross section, length, number of sections in one box, by ways of closing, so no one has set unambiguous rules on technology installation boxes plastic. By experience, you can make some rules that will help to spend a minimum of time and money on these works, but they have only a recommendatory nature and are not a panacea.
To calculate the resistance of the conductor, you can use a calculator for calculating the conductor resistance.
Installing a trunking, step by step instructions
When installing the trunking, you must follow the temperature in the room, it must not exceed 60 ° C. The step-by-step installation algorithm is as follows:
- De-energize the electrical network before you start your work.
- Mark on the surface where you want to install the channels.
- Measure and cut the necessary lengths of ducts.
- Remove the covers from the channels and begin attaching the base. To do this, put the channel to the wall surface and drill through the channel outer hole to the length of the screw. Keep an interval of 30-40 cm between the holes, and then secure the base with self-tapping screws. When installing the channels on a concrete surface, fix the upper and lower holes with dowels, fix the remaining holes with nails. Instead of self-tapping screws, you can use a special compound called liquid nails. In this case, the base is lubricated twice with a substance, and then pressed to the surface for 5 minutes. The best fastening effect will be achieved with the construction with the combined variant of fastening.
- After installing the straight channel, proceed to the installation of additional accessories of the cable channel. Install the corner pieces, connectors.
- Then start arranging the wires in the base. It is important to ensure that the cables are not intertwined, do not have sharp bends, and are insulated.
- Close the base with the cover, install the sockets and switches, in case they were provided by the plan.
- Turn on the power to the system, make sure it works. If you find problems, no power in the sockets and switches, remove the cover of the cable duct and find the source of the problem visually or with a special tool.
Performing installation of the cable channel, at the beginning of the work it is necessary to make a plan, carefully calculating all the components of the system. In this article we discussed the basic concepts of the trunking for the cable. Thanks to this article, you learned why you need a cable duct, its advantages and disadvantages. After reading this article, you will be able to perform installation of the cable channel with their own hands.