The tongue and groove joint. 4 ways to make it
You will successfully cope with the manufacture and fitting of the time-tested connection, regardless of what tools you have. Simply choose one of these proven methods using a variety of tools. from inexpensive tools you probably have on hand to specialized machines.
Regardless of exactly how you shape your cleats and nests, these tips will help you get perfectly fitted, sturdy joints for any product.
- Making the right connections always begins with a careful marking. Use a proven steel ruler and angle, and mark out lines with a sharpened pencil, ruler’s tape, or scribing knife.
- A simple rule to remember: when you mark a socket on an edge or an end piece, divide the thickness of the piece into three equal parts. The two outer thirds will become the walls of the socket, and the middle third should be removed. So, in an 18 mm thick board (picture below), a 6 mm wide slot is made in the center of the edge of the workpiece. When using a material that is more than 18 mm thick, the width of the socket can be more than one third of the thickness of the workpiece, provided that the wall thickness of the socket is at least 6 mm. this is due to strength considerations.
It is easier to fit a rung stud to a socket with rounded edges than to make a rectangular socket. Use a rasp or replaceable blade knife to round the corners.
How to make a tongue and groove with a hand router
To make this clevis joint, we need the router and the table itself. To facilitate the process, you can make such an additional device, as a conductor.
- Install two slatted stops on a plywood sheet, saw holes to match the size of the groove for the backer and spacer. Rack stops must be fixed across the width of the router. They fix it across the working plane. To fix the longitudinal displacement, the other two limiters are aligned at the ends of the intended location of the joinery machine.
- To move the workpiece along the length, mount a pair of bars to the table top, which correspond to the size of the workpiece to be machined.
- Mark out the axis and dimensions of the slots. Install additional device so that the marks on the workpiece and the mandrel coincide completely.
- It is necessary to align and secure the stop.
- Secure the jig with self-tapping screws to the joists.
- It is necessary to take a straight cutter and set the depth of milling, taking into account the thickness of the made conductor. After that it is necessary to fix the workpiece with a clamp and perform machining of the groove.
- For small production runs, it is best to do this on a circular saw.
- First you need to measure the depth of the groove, which will correspond to the length of the stud.
- We measure this value on our workpiece. The length of the stud will be determined by the difference of values. the width of the workpiece and the length of the groove, the height of the workpiece and the width of the groove, divided by half. The resulting leftover material should be removed to obtain a cleat.
- Then set the machine to the length of the slot, taking the width of the slot into account. The circular saw must be clamped at a level that equals ½ the difference in the width of the workpiece and the length of the groove from the worktop line. Make a couple of kerf cuts along the length of the cleat.
- We fix the saw disk on height, equal ½ from a difference of values of heights of preparation and width of a groove from a line of a table top. Two cuts are made at the end of the workpiece.
- Start sawing. For this purpose it is necessary to fix the circular saw to the length of the tenon, and the distance from the disk to the stop should be equal to ½ of the difference in values of the width of the workpiece and the length of the groove. Make two cuts along the width of the workpiece on both sides.
- Correcting the distance from the saw blade to the stop. It must be ½ the height difference between the height of the workpiece and the width of the groove. Make two cuts. Round off the edges of the resulting tenoning with a carpenter’s knife and sand it with emery cloth.
The tenoning tool for the router
tenoning templates come in all shapes and sizes. They are used to make it easier and faster to cut joints such as tongue and groove joints. You can use them to make frames, drawer joints and various furniture joints. On what shape the tooth of the template will depend on the size of the groove, as well as the evenness of its edges. To make a tenoning cutter with your own hands, you will need guides, which will be used to mill the tenons. Mount them on two opposite sides of the body in staggered order, positioned equidistant. If these conditions are met, they will fit together perfectly.
Dovetail wood router
They are most often used in conjunction with milling machines and machines for making grooves in products made of hard and soft wood. They are made of monolithic hard alloys.
Designed to work in tandem with cylindrical cutters.
How to choose a groove milling cutter
Performing this work, you need to know that its technique will directly depend on the location and size of the groove. If it is open, your tool is fixed to the tabletop, the workpiece is guided along the router. Accuracy will depend on the position of the bar and the height of the cutter. To make sure you don’t have any missteps in the picking process, always make a test run on waste wood. Sampling must be carried out in stages, with several passes being made. After each pass of the cutter to avoid overheating it must be removed from the work surface of the table top. This can be done with a template cut out of plywood, which should be traversed by a top bearing mill.
We hope that the information gained from reading this article will be useful to you and useful for use in the home.
Since ancient times there have been many known ways of joining wooden parts together in a structure. One of them is the corner joint on a straight open spike, the model for which the unknown craftsman may have served as his own fingers. In such a connection (also called box knitting), the “fingers” of one part are placed between the “fingers” of the other, which significantly increases the area of mating knots and, accordingly, strengthens the connection.
The method of joining parts in a straight open tenon is not as complicated as a dovetail joint, for example. A simple drawer binder can be made by hand, using a saw and chisel.
This connection of two boards resembles the interlocking fingers of the hand. Although its performance will require some effort and skill, we advise you to master it. this connection is very strong.
Manual milling machine. the basics of work
Before you start the work, you need to perform the following steps:
- Clamp the cutter in the collet;
- Ensure that the fixture is suitable for the power and speed of the hand router;
- set the desired milling depth;
- if edge milling cutters are to be used, a guide ring or bearing must be installed.
Remember that the workpiece to be machined must always rest securely on some surface. Be sure to secure the workpiece before starting the router motor.
Tools to be used
Creating cleats and grooves, which will provide a connection between two pieces of wood, involves making a sampling of material on the side surface of a bar or board with a hand router. All geometry parameters of the elements of the future connection must be strictly observed.
To perform this operation with a hand-held cutter tools with shank diameters of both 8 and 12 mm can be used. The most versatile in this case is the slot cutter, the cutting part of which works as follows:
- the lateral surface forms the walls of the groove and the sides of the stud;
- The end side processes the bottom of the groove and removes a layer of material of the desired thickness from the base of the stud.
So, when using this type of tool, both a tongue and groove can be created on the side of a timber or board. Their dimensions can be adjusted over a wide range.
In cases where higher demands are made on the reliability of woodwork connections, grooves and studs are not made in a rectangular shape, but in a shape called a “dovetail”. Slots and studs of this configuration are created with the help of dovetail cutters. It is also possible to carry out the procedure of forming grooves and studs of this shape with a hand router, but for this purpose it is necessary to use devices of another design.
Dovetail joint with the help of a template
In order that the question of how to make a groove in a board and a bar or a tenon on their side surface does not cause particular difficulties, it is better to use a power tool equipped with convenient side handles, a wide guiding sole and an option to protect the spindle from spinning during the replacement of the cutter. In addition, it is desirable that in such equipment there is a side stop, due to which the outreach of the cutter used with it in the set will always remain constant.
The connection principle and its varieties
All joints of tongue and groove are designed according to the same principle: a groove on one part and a recess on the other part. In configuration and size, they are exactly the same.
When these two parts are tightly connected, you get a solid technological unit.
In the construction of houses, such a connection prevents one part of the structure with respect to the other; in the manufacture of furniture, it significantly increases the area on which the adhesive is applied, thereby providing additional strength to the product.
According to the geometric shape of the protrusion and recess, such joints are divided into two main types:
According to the number of studs and recesses that need to be made for a single articulation of parts, these connections are subdivided into:
Important! Regardless of the number and geometric shape of protrusions and recesses, they must be made only parallel to the fibers of the wood.
Types of joints
Depending on the task at hand, the dovetail can be made in different ways:
- Corner joints.
- Joining with a bevel.
- Through-joint with a rebate.
All types of connection have their strengths and weaknesses, but, one way or another, they form a reliable connection between the two parts. The following tools will be needed for the job:
- A mallet (wooden mallet).
- Chisel, chisel.
- Jigsaw or hand saw.
- Pencil, tape measure, sandpaper.
With these tools, you can easily make a joint. If it is possible to use a hand router, there is no need to use these tools.
This type of connection is widely used in the manufacture of both cabinet and upholstered furniture. Also called a “box hammer. To begin with, the workpiece must be planed and the excess wood removed. The next step is to mark for the sockets. Here everything is individual and depends on the width of the board, as well as on the tasks at hand. It is necessary to draw lines across the workpiece at a distance of 6 mm from both edges. Then you need to divide the distance between them into an even number, on each side to set aside 3 mm and draw lines across the end.
Now it is necessary to mark the slope of the studs with a maloka. The surplus, which will remain, must be marked to avoid confusion in the future.
Making grooved strips at home
Often we have to make home furniture or make repairs, making do with the simplest methods and what is at hand.
If it became necessary to make a groove in the board with your own hands, have patience and the right tools:
- Circular saw. The most practical tool, but unfortunately not everyone has it.
- A regular wood saw. It will take longer to work with it, but it is an accessory that can be found in every home.
- Electric drill. It is also quite available, but before you make a groove in the board with a drill, it is advisable to practice on an unnecessary bar, practicing the skill.
The best material to use is wooden boards, planks and the like. The price of raw materials is minimal, in a pinch, what can be found at home is used. The most successful solution. end connection through, single open straight.
- It is recommended to make the cleats ¼ of the thickness of the strip and the groove of the same size.
- The height and length of the groove must match the size of the strip.
- Prepare a pencil and a ruler for marking.
- Decide on the coordinates of the kerf and mark it.
- The kerf should be made along the line inside the side that will then be separated.
- For the circular saw, the instructions recommend a blade width of 2-4 mm.
- Sawing in the middle of the marked line removes 1-2 mm extra, as two grooves are made on each slat.
- If you need to join two pieces at a 90º angle, cut the pieces at 45º on the ends.
- For an open-end butt joint (single straight joint) mark the cutting points on the beveled edges of the planks.
- Before you remove the groove from the board, once again check the correctness of the kerf from all sides.
- For angular single-joint not through into the eyelet instead of a groove the eyelet is made. In this case, the width of the tongue is left unchanged, and the length will be 0.3-0.8 the width of the board to be joined.
- Since the circular saw rounds the edges of the eyelet, leaving the shape of the stud unchanged, it is desirable to finish the corners, having ground them with a rasp.
The method is rather labor-intensive, but it can be called an alternative to the above described. If you could not get a hand router, prepare a drill and a chisel, a ruler and a pencil.
- Choose a drill with a diameter corresponding to the width of the future groove.
- To guess the depth of the groove, you can make a mark on the drill itself (for example, draw it with bright paint).
- Draw two parallel lines across the joist at the right distance from each other.
- Having fixed the workpiece in a vice, drill a groove, carefully controlling the even vertical position of the drill and maintaining its depth.
- All unnecessary at the end remove a sharp chisel and grind with an emery cloth.
We suggest you read How to make a door out of boards
Making a cross groove with a hacksaw.
Here will help a competently made marking.
Cheap and hard
Carving in wood is always beautiful, rich and expensive. Talented people, artists or sculptors do it. But there are carving methods that anyone can do. For example, it is very easy to cut patterns with a hand router on wood. The work is carried out with a small-diameter end mill along the contour of the pattern. To do this, you need to pick up a board of hard rock, nail a stencil, cut out of cardboard, and milling on the template.
For the work fit a milling machine of any power. It is desirable that it was light and handy, then it will be easier to copy the pattern. Therefore, you do not need to worry about what to choose a milling machine for beginners, the main thing is to pick up cutters with a diameter of 2 millimeters or more. At work it is necessary to show diligence to pass evenly a thin mill on the contour of the figure and not to break it. The next step is deepening of the background, for this purpose a cutter-flag of large diameter is used.