Can lithium batteries be stored in the cold?

In contrast to operation, long-term storage of lithium batteries in the cold is unacceptable. At low temperatures the current output temporarily decreases and the rate of power supply self-discharge increases.

Get The BEST PERFORMANCE From Lithium Ion Batteries & Make Them LAST LONGER!

It is possible, and it all depends on the chemical composition of the battery used and the observance of the rules of its operation. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are the most resistant to frost. And as for the other representatives of Li-ion technology, they can also be used in winter, but the ambient temperature should not be lower.20 degrees.

Nickel-metal hydride

In the second half of the 20th century, a new kind of battery was developed for the space industry. It used a metal that absorbs hydrogen, making the battery smaller and lighter. Its advantages are the lack of “memory effect”, the ability to be stored in a charged state. Self-discharge occurs, but is much slower than in nickel-cadmium batteries. Therefore, once every 2-3 months a recharging is carried out.

Nickel-metal hydride batteries cannot be used at temperatures: below.10 degrees and above 40 degrees. Their service life is also affected by the charging process. Overheating and overcharging are extremely undesirable. Therefore, only brand-name accessories should be used for battery maintenance.

Cadmium and metal hydride batteries should not be stored at room temperature, but in a cool (but not below freezing) workshop or utility room.

How to store Li-Ion batteries?

Proper battery storage is critical to extending battery life, maximizing battery performance, and minimizing loss of capacity. In this article we will talk about how to properly store lithium ion batteries. These drives are sensitive to high temperatures and excessive levels of charge. But if stored in optimal conditions, you can greatly extend battery life and reduce the loss of capacity.

Battery storage inevitably leads to battery ageing, but following a number of recommendations can slow this process down. To reduce the loss of capacity during storage, to keep the Li-Ion battery in working condition and not allow it to self-discharge, it should be stored charged to about 40%. Some manufacturers recommend that lithium ion batteries should be stored at 70-90% of their capacity.

Determining the degree of charge at 40% is not difficult, you need to measure the voltage of the Li-Ion battery. It is by the voltage that you can determine the level of charge:

  • The Li-ion cell is discharged at 2.8 volts and charged at 4.2 volts, so the voltage in between is approximately 50% of the charge. 3.5 volts is the midpoint;
  • At 3.4 volts per cell, the Li-Ion battery is approximately 40% charged;
  • So with a nominal battery voltage of 48 volts (13 cells), 40% of the charge level will be at a total battery voltage of 44.2 volts;
  • And with a rated battery voltage of 36 volts (10 cells), 40% of the charge level will be at a total battery voltage of 34 volts;
  • It is recommended that you wait 1.5 hours after charging or discharging a Li-Ion battery before measuring its voltage.

How to Store Lithium Batteries for an Electric Screwdriver

The lithium-ion battery (Li-ion) is a type of electric battery that is widespread in modern consumer electronics and is used as a power source in electric cars and energy storage systems.

In this article under the proper use of lithium-ion batteries we will understand the observance of such conditions in which the lithium-ion battery of a portable device can work safely, last a long time, and the functioning of the device will remain full.

We will talk about lithium-ion batteries, because in the majority of modern mobile gadgets: tablets, laptops, smart phones, etc. e lithium batteries are installed. And if in the past you could often find nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, today lithium batteries are used en masse.

The lithium-ion battery will last 10-15 times longer if used properly than if used as it is, as will be discussed later in the text. Here are tips for users, following which will help keep the lithium battery efficient and high capacity throughout the period of use of the portable device, until the time comes and the decision to buy a new one to replace the old one.

Often the battery of a smartphone blows up, often deforming the case as well. Bloating is a symptom of the accumulation of gases, reaction products of improper use inside the battery that leads to increased pressure on the body from the inside.

If a bloated battery is not replaced in time it will eventually collapse or in the worst case explode. But the most interesting thing about this smartphone story is that the described problem can be easily prevented and prevented by following simple rules of operation of the device with a lithium-ion battery, and then the battery life will be preserved for as long as possible.

Excessive heat, for whatever reason, harms the lithium-ion battery the most. The causes can be both an external heat source and stressful charging and discharging modes. So if you leave your smartphone in the sun, for example at the beach or in a holder inside a car, this will reduce both the battery’s ability to accept a charge while charging and its ability to hold a charge afterwards.

The best way to preserve the capacity of a lithium battery is to ensure that its case temperature does not rise above 20°C. If the temperature rises above 30°C, the battery retention capacity will drop from the original 100% to 80%.

The battery’s ability to hold a charge is reduced by half when heated to 45°C. A temperature of 45°C, by the way, is easily achieved by leaving the device in the sun or by using power-hungry applications intensively.

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That is, if you notice that the device or the battery noticeably warmed up, move to a cool place (if the reason is the ambient temperature) or turn off unnecessary applications and services, reduce the display brightness, turn on the power saving mode. so you can reduce the power consumption of the device, and reduce the current that flows through the battery. the battery will begin to cool down.

If that doesn’t help, turn the device off, remove the battery (if possible) and wait for it to cool down or for the device to cool down if the design does not allow you to remove the battery.

On the contrary, an extremely cold battery, at a temperature below.4°C, simply will not be able to deliver full power until it warms up, preferably to room temperature.

But in general low temperatures are not able to cause as irreversible damage to the lithium battery as high temperatures do, so after warming up to room temperature extremely cold battery, the properties of its electrolyte will be restored. Remove the cold battery from the device indoors, or warm it up a little in your hands, then put it back in.

Disconnect the charger in time

If you charge a battery longer than it should, that is, if it remains connected to a charging source even after it is fully charged, it can kill the battery, greatly reducing its capacity.

The bottom line is that the operating level of a normal lithium battery should not exceed 3.6 volts for safe operation, but battery chargers do apply 4.2 volts to the terminals during charging. And if the charger is not disconnected in time (fortunately, some automatically disconnect themselves), harmful reactions will start inside the battery. Worst case scenario is excessive overheating and a chain reaction in the electrolyte is not long in coming.

Original brand chargers (that come with the gadget from the manufacturer) are of high quality, they themselves are able to reduce the charging current, working according to the correct algorithm with the battery and the built-in gadget controller.

With the original chargers, the danger of overcharging is minimal. But it’s better to be sure and disconnect the charger immediately when you receive a signal (sound, light or icon on the screen) that the battery is fully charged. Don’t leave your fully charged smartphone connected to the charger for too long.

Don’t worry that when you disconnect your smartphone from the charger, it will start discharging, because lithium batteries have a low self-discharge rate compared to other types of batteries. Even if you do not use the battery at all after charging, then a day after disconnecting the charger only 5% of the energy will be lost, but for the next month. another 2%.

In any case, it is not necessary to leave the device on charge (even with a brand-name charger) until the last moment, but rather turn it off as soon as the display (or indicator) shows a full charge.

All modern mobile devices on lithium-ion batteries show a 100% charge when the battery is actually fully charged, there is no need to hold longer.

Avoid deep discharges

General rules

There are a number of rules for extending the life of any battery when it is forced into long-term storage:

  • When using a power source with long interruptions, a full discharge-discharge cycle of the cell should be performed several times;
  • The ambient air temperature in the storage room should not drop below 10 degrees Celsius;
  • Extending the life of a resting battery pack is aided by periodic charging and full discharging of the power source. at least once every six months;
  • If the power tool is not expected to be used in the near future, the battery should be disconnected from it and cleaned of all visible debris.

Important: If you notice traces of oxide on the housing or the contacts, wipe them off with a special cleanser or a methylated spirits solution.

Nickel-cadmium batteries

Nickel cadmium batteries don’t have much of a memory effect. They can withstand negative temperatures. They can hold a charge for a long time, and there will be no noticeable decrease in performance.

It is necessary to mention their constructional peculiarities. After all, they are also the ones that form the individual negative factors of failure.

Nickel-cadmium batteries. with an electrolyte that gradually evaporates. That’s why in such a situation there are no methods capable of carrying out resuscitation. The only thing left to do is to replace the battery.

And nickel cadmium batteries also show greater sensitivity to mechanical impacts. One of the two main ways of possible resuscitation is based on this. The cell is recoverable by:

The latter method requires care. It’s a good idea to look up the rated currents for a particular class of battery. It is useful to study the experience of other users. That is, ask how they carry out such resuscitation measures.

Factors affecting the service life of a Li-ion battery

First of all, the service life of any battery depends on its quality. If the manufacturer uses quality components and does not violate the technology, the estimated life of the battery will be higher and vice versa. And within the calculated resource, which depends on the quality of the product, there may be significant deviations associated with operating conditions.

Every battery has operating requirements and, oddly enough, they are similar for most types of batteries. Here are some general points about what affects the battery life cycle:

  • Observance of current regimes;
  • Ambient temperature;
  • Avoiding overcharge or deep discharge;
  • Proper Storage.

The user, as a rule, does not have to worry about current modes and overcharge of lithium-ion batteries, especially when using the original charger. This is due to the BMS controller, which is mandatory for lithium-ion cell assemblies and serves to control the parameters and balance the cells. And here’s how to properly store lithium-ion batteries. Let’s discuss further.

How to handle, store, where to dispose of the leftovers

Considering the above it is necessary to handle lithium-ion batteries with care. Danger of fire and explosion if the battery is incorrectly charged, short-circuited, or mechanically damaged. The latter is especially relevant for lithium polymer batteries, which do not have a robust protective housing. If you accidentally or intentionally puncture or tear the film that protects the battery, after 10-15 seconds you can see a blinding red light in your hands. The same can happen if you bend or squeeze the battery, and especially if you pierce it with a tool. This happens when trying to remove the battery, glued on a double-sided adhesive tape, from the cell phone to replace it with a new one. The risk is reduced by removing the discharged battery, so this should be done before you start work. For the same reason, and the fact that it can deliver tens if not hundreds of amps if short-circuited, such batteries should be stored safely and carefully packed, not in a pile of junk.

In general, these batteries should be brought to a 30-50% charge level before storage. They should be stored at room temperature. Some “experts” say that they should be kept in the refrigerator. Don’t. But old, dead and especially bloated batteries must not be stored in any way, they must be gotten rid of as soon as possible, because they are unpredictable and can at any time become the cause of the fire.

The question of “where to dispose of” is quite difficult. Given the environmental hazards of lithium (in terms of MPC is close to lead), they must be disposed of by special organizations, but in our country I do not know such organizations working with individuals. Do not dispose of them in the trash and especially in battery containers. Perhaps the ideal.- Some sort of lockable sand box outdoors, the contents of which would be picked up by special services.

You can’t (and if you really want to, you can’t either!) trying to solder batteries. Spot welding only! Exception.- Lithium polymer ones with specially lengthened solder pins and cylindrical batteries with pre-welded ribbon blades. Even slight overheating can lead to depressurization with subsequent auto-ignition, melting of the separator and internal short circuit.

All sorts of shamanism like “push the battery” or “unlock the controller”.- it’s the risk of having a fireball in your hand,. or bed. Remember, if the battery controller locks up, it’s not because a money-grubbing manufacturer wants you to buy a new one. That’s because the manufacturer doesn’t want to pay for the damage caused by the batteries catching fire.

Having assembled the battery charger (no matter.- as a stand-alone product or as part of some design), you should perform the first charge cycle by connecting a voltmeter and milliammeter together with the battery and making sure that it works correctly. And pay attention to the measurement accuracy: the maximum allowable deviation from the nominal voltage of 4.2 V does not exceed 1.2%, and the error of common inexpensive multimeters with 3.5 digits when measuring this voltage to the limit of 20 V reaches 1%.

Assembling a battery of several batteries, you should choose the cells that are as close as possible (within 1-3%) in terms of capacity in a series connection and internal resistance.- in parallel. Before connecting the cells in parallel must equalize their voltages. Cells for the battery must be strictly from the same batch.

The battery cannot be repaired by replacing a single cell with a new one. Unbalancing in this case is almost guaranteed. And you already know the dangers of unbalancing (hint.- fire and explosion).

Fuse.- Is what should be in the circuit of any lithium-ion battery.

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