Most portable drills have chucks screwed onto a threaded spindle that is connected to the drill and then held in place with a locking screw. To understand which item you need to buy to replace the old one, you need to open the petals to the widest point and look into the base with a flashlight If you can see a screw at the bottom of the chuck, you should pay attention to the head type. If it is missing, it is probably a tapered spindle
When buying, it is also worth considering that the element must provide the proper rigidity of attachment, taking into account the number of revolutions. expensive models allow for less radial run-out.
Not in last place and the convenience of using the chuck, in this case the quick-clamp in the first position, but when it comes to durability, it is better to buy with a key.
If drills of carbide material are used, then the chuck must be self-centered, because such equipment has poor resistance to longitudinal bending
It is important to know that the stiffness of the mount is always compared to the length of the nozzle and the material of which it is made
How to open the drill chuck?
The purpose of the chuck on a drill is to securely hold a drill bit or other attachments (construction mixer, grinding wheel, etc. д.). Locking is carried out by three mechanical “fingers” which are brought together and apart by the threaded mechanism.
There are two basic varieties of chuck:
- Keyless variety. To open such a design, it is enough to wrap your fingers around the body and, after turning it back, briefly press the trigger of the tool. The drill itself will turn the shaft by itself by moving the “fingers” that fix the drill. This chuck is easier to work with, but will be somewhat less secure in holding the tool.
- A variation equipped with a wrench. The wrench is a T-shaped device, one end of which has a tapered toothed pinion. The other two ends serve as handles for rotation. To unscrew or tighten the chuck, the wrench is inserted into the hole on the housing and rotated while holding the housing with the other hand.
As a rule, the key is included in the delivery of power tools. It either lies in the box, or is attached to the power cord with a special fastener.
Drill chucks: varieties
If the model of a minidrill or an electric screwdriver is equipped with a special type of locking device, it is necessary to use a clamping single-finger element. On the tool without a locking device are used dual-coupling element or mini chuck. As a rule, the body of such a device is made of plastic, and for the manufacture of the mechanism and cams a steel alloy is used.
Any option for self-repair work requires knowledge of the device and the main components:
How to Disassemble a Drill Chuck
How to Disassemble a Drill Chuck? Everyone asks this question sooner or later.
There are 2 main methods of disassembling the chuck. the key (as the most used in household and professional appliances).
The method is peoratory:
- Set the collets apart before they go into the chuck.
- Insert the sleeve in the chuck.
- Insert the drill into the pad.
- Turn on the power tool for a couple of seconds. this will remove the “sleeve” (adjusting collar).
- Collets are removed. with the obligatory marking of their mutual spatial positioning. The difficulty is that when reassembling, the collets must each take their place. If not, no centring of the replacement tool is possible.
The need for the lever is that it is designed to withstand forces that are greater than those of the drill.
Disassembly method with hammer:
- Extend the collets.
- Place the chuck on the vice so that the body passes between the jaws and the sleeve does not.
- Warm up the sleeve with a local heat source. a construction dryer is best.
- Put a plate on the chuck as a buffer.
- The housing is hammered out of the adjusting sleeve with a hammer through a plate.
Drill chucks are available as quick-change chucks. The order of their disassembly is as follows:
- The socket is pryed up and pulled apart on the perimeter with a screwdriver.
- When the distance between it and the housing is sufficient, you can remove it simply with your fingers.
- Push the jaws to the limit.
- Insert the pin or the bolt in the chuck and with gentle hammer blows the shell is knocked out of the sleeve bottom.
- Once these parts are lagging behind each other disassembly as a process for lubrication stops. Further action will result in the loss of structural integrity (assembly at this level is done in a production environment).
Drill chuck: how to change, dismantle, unscrew
An electric drill is an indispensable tool kit for the home handyman and the professional alike. Without this tool, it is difficult to perform any work associated with the production of anything, as well as assembly, disassembly and so on.
Breakdown of a drill, even of a well-known brand, will finally happen at some point. One of the most common causes of failure of this power tool is chuck failure, both key-type and self-clamping.
Reasons for changing a drill chuck
Sooner or later any part, assembly, or any mechanism becomes unusable.
In modern drills, such as Makita, Interskol, Bosch and so on, the drill and other cutting tools, as well as all kinds of attachments are fixed by a cam-type device.
The cam mechanism is a 3 or 4 cams that hold the tool in the drill chuck.
If it is a quick-action device, it is tightened by hand, and if it is a key-action device, it is tightened with a special wrench.
There are also collet devices, but they are more applicable in production for metalworking. All kinds of tools necessary for work are clamped in them.
- Run-out during rotation. This indicates wear on the cams or the front bearings of the shaft.
- Turning on the shaft. Cause: Thread damage if the chuck is a threaded one, or tool cone wear.
Run-out is a harmful and unsafe phenomenon and can be described as follows
- The cutting tool in the drill, or some tooling, is not holding up well.
- Drill bits jam (when taper is worn).
- Holes become irregularly shaped.
- Wear on the shank of the drill bit.
How to remove the chuck from an electric drill
The chuck can be attached to the spindle in the following way:
- Cone mount. When Morse taper (tool taper) is used. In this case, the shaft is in the shape of a cone, is well ground and requires minimal force to attach it. Example of marking: B10, where B is the taper symbol and 10 is the shank diameter of the cutting tool. It is the most common type of screwdriver fastener.
- Threaded mount. There are metric and inch threads. If the chuck was stamped on the housing marking M13, then the thread is metric, 13 mm. If it is an inch, UNF with ½ inch diameter.
However, to make the chuck 100% safe, the manufacturer of imported drills also fixes the chuck with a screw, which serves as a stopper and reliably fixes it to the shaft.
The screw has a left hand thread and very often, when the drill is repaired by inexperienced people, the slot on the screwdriver screw is torn by ignorance, believing that there is a standard right hand thread. so unscrew it clockwise.
Knowing design features of your own drill, to remove the chuck does not seem to be a big problem.
In order to change this item, the following tools must be prepared:
- Pipe wrench
- Medium sized hammer. Approximately 400-500 grams.
- Allen wrenches.
- Caliper. 2 or 3.
- A screwdriver with the necessary shape and cross section of the blade.
- Personal or velvet file.
The following list shows the minimum tools required. It is very possible that something else will be needed for the disassembly.
The connection is screwed
- Unscrew setscrew counterclockwise.
- Unscrew the chuck in the same direction. If there are grooves on the shaft. use wrench for fixation.
- If the drill is jammed, tap the cams from top to bottom with a precise and light hammer blow.
- Reassembly is done in reverse order.
By fixing the part of the tooling on which the cams with a pipe (gas) wrench. you need to turn the shaft. The chuck should unscrew easily after such “insistent” intervention.
Joining with a tool cone: disassembly step by step
This disassembly is done with a hammer and a mallet made of non-ferrous metal: brass, bronze, aluminum, copper. However, you still encounter hammers of this type.
The soft metal will not cause damage to the tooling in the form of chips and deformations.
The following steps must be performed:
- Hold the drill with the handgrip upwards.
- Tap gently on the backside of the chuck with a hammer all around its circumference.
- After the device is dismantled, you need to grind the cone with a fine sandpaper. Remove bigger slots, if any, with file.
- Insert the new chuck into its old location and hammer it into place with a wooden mallet.
For old drills, made in the Soviet period, another method is applicable. There is quite a big gap between the tool body and the chuck, and on the shaft there are flats.
Locksmiths, as a rule, did the following:
Of course, it is not the safest way, taking into account that the key can fly off on an unplanned trajectory and injure the locksmith. There is also a variety of drills, where the body has a slot in which a wedge is inserted to knock out the chuck. Such drills can have two cones: one in the chuck and the other in the drill. These tools are impressive in size and weight.
Taper drills are considered more accurate in critical drilling because the Morse taper is made with a high degree of precision.
In addition, a tapered chuck can be removed with a puller, because in every such drill, where there is not even a threaded hole for the retaining screw, there is a through hole.
And if you use a puller with a central stud and put it in this hole, then securing its mating part with what has hooks in the form of powerful hooks you can also remove the firmly attached chuck.
They are used to remove, for example, bearings.
Replacement on Interskol drills
Interskol drill is very comfortable, has an ergonomic handle. Low price is also a frequent reason why customers choose it.
How to get a drill out of a damaged chuck
Very often we encounter a situation where a drill bit gets jammed in a drill chuck. The only question is how to get it out? To avoid disassembly of the device, the jammed drill bit should be removed as follows:
- The drill should be clamped horizontally in a vice to prevent breakage.
- Hold the body of the drill at a standstill.
- Take the hammer and then tap the chuck surface lightly.
- If the problem is not solved, the blows should be sharper, but not stronger, so as not to damage the product.
- Blows should be applied directly tangentially to the sleeve, and continue until the shank of the nozzle extends out of the cams.
Remove the jammed drill bit or nozzle from the old Soviet drill should be using two sanitary wrenches. Use one wrench to securely lock the shaft of the drill, and use the other to perform a chuck twist. If the movement is not carried out, it is necessary to make a strong blow with a hammer on the key.
Good to know! To avoid the bits jamming in the drill jaws, you should regularly lubricate the jaws with regular motor oil.
Chucks are designed to hold a replacement accessory during the performance of torque or reciprocating movement of the mechanism inside the mechanical tool. Depending on the type of tooling used, different clamping devices are used. Thus, there are three basic types. Let’s consider each option in more detail.
Otherwise, such a device for a drill chuck is called a key chuck. The reason is that in order to fix a bit with a diameter of 1-16 mm, you have to change the position of the jaws using a special wrench. This fact is considered a plus because of the reliability of work and a minus because of the compact device, which is often lost. Such a device is installed on the drill.
To control the clamps here you need to rotate the sleeve itself without using additional devices. The device is often installed on cordless drills, screwdrivers. The disadvantages here are the poor retention of large diameter bits (limit diameters of 10 or 12-13 mm). The solution is to replace the worn chuck or use a drill with a key analog.
These chucks are available with one or two sockets. The former are considered unreliable because of the difficulty of repair and the presence of locks with low strength (elements of the shaft locking system). The latter are particularly easy to use: the skirt is held in place by the other hand while the upper cylinder rotates.
This type of chucks is installed on perorators. They are characterized by the fact that during the rotary and reciprocating motion of the mechanism no outflow or twisting of the bit is possible. The shank and bits are also different in this case. In cross-section it is not a polygon, but a cylinder with longitudinal grooves.
Within the group, these cartridges (Steck-Dreh-Sitzt. from the German “insert, turn, drill fixed”) are divided into several subspecies:
- SDS. Diameter of a shank with two slots is 10 mm. Auger penetration depth. 40 mm. Suitable for SDS-plus bits.
- SDS-plus. The SDS analogue is distinguished by two additional shortened slots. They are used to prevent the drill from falling out. Approved drill diameters from 4-32 mm and lengths from 110 to 1000 mm. Application. lightweight rotary tools.
- SDS-top. Seldom used in comparison with the second version. Such chuck is installed on the tool of average weight. Diameter of bit shank here is 14 mm, drill diameter is up to 32 mm. tool plunge is carried out on 70 mm. Two pairs of slots: short and long.
- SDS-max. Commonly used for drills over 20 mm in diameter (heavy equipment). The shank with three long and two short slots has a section of 18 mm, deepened by 90 mm.
- SDS-quick. Here the shank has lugs for fixation and a section in the form of a hexagon, which allows to work with bits and drills. Augers are limited to 10 mm in thickness.
- SDS-hex. This is a specialized chuck device for working with chisels and chisels. Fitted on sledgehammers.
From the above it can be seen that the devices differ from drill chucks in the absence of clamping blades. Locking is achieved by means of body-integrated guides that fit into the slots of the shank. No possibility of falling out due to ball and spring fasteners. This explains the different bits depending on the chuck design. The bits are inserted by pressing down until you hear a “click.
Chuck replacement and disassembly in the drill
In the question of how to replace a worn chuck on the drill, there is nothing complicated. To do this, just buy the appropriate clamping device, remove the old one from the drill and install the new one on it. It should be borne in mind that both regular and mini-drills can be fitted with two types of chucks:
Chucks, for the installation on the drill, which uses a thread, are removed and fixed according to the above-described scheme. When replacing such a device, it is not enough to know that it is a threaded tool, it is also important to take into account the markings that are necessarily applied to it. Such clamping cartridges can be marked as follows:
The interval 1.5-13, present in these designations, indicates the minimum and maximum diameters of the installed cutting tool. The rules for replacing the chuck on the drill assumes that the new clamping device must have a marking that is completely identical to the designation of the old.
With the question of how to replace a tapered chuck on a drill, everything is somewhat simpler. Various markings may also be applied to devices of this type, as follows:
To replace a chuck on the drill this type, you simply need to pick up the clamping device with the appropriate markings and insert its seating in the cone hole drilling equipment. To orient in such marking is simple enough: the letter “B” means that it is a chuck exactly of the cone type, and the number indicates the diameter of the bottom of the landing hole.
Removing the taper chuck from the drill is as easy as installing it. In order to perform such a procedure, you simply need to knock the chuck out of the mounting hole of the drill, which uses a regular hammer. With the details of installation and removal of the taper chuck of an electric drill can also be found by watching the appropriate video.
On the Soviet drills, the chuck with a taper was simply knocked out, the gearbox design allowed such roughness. To remove the chuck of modern models you need to use pullers or special devices
How to disassemble the chuck of an electric screwdriver or drill? Such a procedure should be periodically performed for maintenance of the device (cleaning and lubrication of all its internal elements), as well as its minor repairs. This allows you to significantly extend the life of the cartridge.
When disassembling the chuck, you should consider what type it belongs to. Guided by the instructions or video, it is necessary to perform all actions on disassembly of such a device as carefully as possible not to damage its constituent elements. Once all the procedures for maintenance or repair elements of the drill chuck are performed, you should perform its reassembly in reverse order.
If the structural elements are badly worn and it is impossible to restore them, it is better to replace the entire mechanism, which is much cheaper than its repair.