The subtleties of making a press for fuel briquettes with your own hands
To produce 1 ton of fuel briquettes you need to take about 2 tons of wood waste or 1.5 tons of straw. Electricity consumption is approximately 100 kWh/t. Calorific value of this heating product is 19 MJ/kg, which is much higher than the one of ordinary firewood (only 10 MJ/kg).
With the right choice of equipment, manufacturing and storage of products, the technology pays for itself in about 2 years.
After reading my article you can decide for yourself, what’s better: to make a heating material from unnecessary raw material, save time and money or continue to heat with firewood. After all, when using briquettes you can dispose of unnecessary household waste, and heat the cottage or bath with environmentally friendly fuel briquettes. If you want to organize your own production of pellets then you just need information about the organization of the process chain and my new book “Typical mistakes of equipment manufacturers when planning the production of pellets” will help you in this.
Making at home
It is clear that to buy such powerful equipment for the pressing of briquettes at home is a wasteful idea. Even if you have the means and free raw materials, to recoup its cost will only be possible if the wood is pressed from sawdust for sale. This means you can’t sustain traditional lignin extraction technology.
Hint. Waste winter pruning of trees will go perfectly for briquetting, if they are pre-shredded by a crusher. About the process of assembling such a shredder of branches read.
Instead, home craftsmen have adapted to use different binders to form “bricks”, for example:
In order not to buy expensive drying and pressing equipment, fuel briquettes are made at home as follows. Soak sawdust in water and thoroughly mix with clay in the ratio of 1 : 10, or add soaked cardboard or wallpaper glue. The resulting mixture for making briquettes is placed in the mold of a handmade sawdust press and compressed by hand. Then the “bricks” are taken out of the moulds and left to dry naturally, outdoors.
For your information. According to this technology clever owners press briquettes from any available materials that can burn: straw, paper, cardboard, leaves, husks of seeds and so on.
Stages of making briquettes from sawdust with their own hands
The process of pressing sawdust at home is as follows:
- drying the raw material if it has a high moisture content;
- Crushing the raw material in a crusher or by hand;
- Mixing of the crushed sawdust raw material with clay or cardboard;
- loading under the press;
- Pressing into molds;
- Unloading and drying in the air;
- wrapping in foil.
The quality of drying can be checked by breaking the briquettes, they should be dense and dry at the cut.
If no suitable crusher is available, a shredder can be used.
The film must be shrink-wrapped, so that moisture does not get into the final product and its shape is preserved.
Preparation of raw materials
The next step is engaged in the preparation of raw materials, but first you need to choose it correctly. To compress high-quality paper and cardboard briquettes, you need to pre-wet them in water, then squeeze well to remove all residual moisture, and after that you can lay them in the baling mechanism.
If the raw material is vegetable waste in the form of toa and sawdust, it must first be thoroughly mixed in a separate container. Then add a small amount of water, glue and clay to the overall composition. To increase the combustibility, a bit of paper can be put in. It also acts as a binding agent. The volume of clay is always taken at a ratio of 1: 10 of the total volume of combustible components. In this case it is possible to obtain an excellent material for heating installations.
Processing of the prepared material is the most important step in the production. The work begins with the assembly and testing of raw materials. After that, it is necessary to clear a place where the ready-made pressed blocks will be stored. It should be noted at once that after pressing the briquettes will be wet and sticky. So that they do not stick together and do not lose the correct shape, they must not be stacked too close to each other. It is best to put plywood sheets or flat slate between the pressed material.
A removable container is installed in the press, and the piston is inserted into it. A small volume of pre-prepared raw materials is put into the device and pressed on the homemade handle of the press. At the same time, the process must be monitored to ensure that all of the available liquid is drained out. This process usually takes about a minute. After the liquid is completely eliminated, you can take out the piston, take out the finished briquette and send it to dry.
Using a similar method other materials are also processed and pressed. The main thing is not to forget to stack them neatly in the prepared place on an absolutely flat surface. In one hour of such work you can produce about 60 homemade briquettes.
Drying and application
After the pressing process is completed, the finished products are put to dry. In the home you can simply spread the material on a sunny lawn, but make sure that it does not get into the rain, otherwise the drying process will be delayed. When briquettes lose the maximum volume of moisture, they can be moved to a permanent storage, and they can be stacked as desired and do not fear that they stick.
It is worth adding right away that such homemade blocks do not weigh much, this is due to the lack of pressure during production. Actually, after that you can test the briquettes and use them to flood the sauna or ignite the fireplace. It is better to make these activities using a special kindling or put some paper in the furnace, as the usual way to do it will be quite difficult.
By the way, this baling unit if you want you can upgrade, for example, buy a factory press, then the resulting briquettes will be more qualitative and dense, and their output quantity will increase significantly.
Materials for the manufacture of the press:
There are many blueprints of the press device. The main difficulty in its manufacture is the assembly of a hydraulic pressing system. In the proposed version of its power unit is a 4 kW motor. It must be connected through a homemade adapter to the oil pump.
The oil pump through a hydraulic valve is connected to the hydraulic cylinder, the rod of which directly compresses the sawdust. The system is also supplemented with a tank for oil. From it goes the supply to the pump, and also drains the return from the hydraulic manifold. In essence, the same principle is repeated that is used on any tractor.
In this form, the mechanism works in manual mode. Exit and retraction of the rod can only be done by moving the lever on the spool valve. This is inconvenient, because the operator has to deal with loading sawdust.
A simple mechanism for automation. Hydraulic directional control switches are linked by a system of levers to the piston rod. End switches are assembled, which switch the lever on the principle of a click by means of a spring. The plunger reaches the end, pushes the lever itself, and the divider switches. This mechanism works in 2 directions.
Hydraulic press for sawdust and sawdust briquetting. how to make it with your own hands? Drawing and price of the machine
Many private homes have stoves that run on solid fuel. Firewood, charcoal and hard coal are used. Another type of fuel is pellets and fuel briquettes.
Waste products from wood processing (chips, sawdust), waste paper, husk from seeds of vegetative crops (sunflower, cedar) are used as a raw material for their production. In principle, these wastes can be burned in the furnace without any additional operations with them. But then the speed of combustion rises sharply, the heat literally flies into the pipe.
Pressed raw materials have a longer combustion time, increasing the economic efficiency of the furnace. To obtain fuel briquettes special equipment is used. presses for briquetting.
Description and operation principle
The fuel briquette press is a mechanical device consisting of:
- The base, the table, is used to fasten the other structural elements of the press, including the die which forms the shape of the future product.
- The power frame, attached to the base. Designed to transmit the force through the punch to the material to be compressed.
- The drive. there are two types:
- Mechanical, such as hydraulic or electric motor;
- manual. human muscle power is used as a booster; a subspecies is the use of an additional jack;
Stages of briquette production:
- The raw material is poured into a die and compacted, so that the maximum possible amount of material enters.
- Then, the force is transmitted to the punch through a system of levers.
- A punch squeezes the raw material in a die.
- The briquette is taken out of the unfixed mold and sent for drying.
Scope of application
Before considering the applications of the press, it is advisable to become familiar with the need to build or purchase equipment.
Power design will justify itself in several cases:
These two factors determine the efficiency of equipment and the use of fuel briquettes.
As raw materials can be used:
- Waste wood. chips and sawdust. The availability of this material is determined by the developed industrial processing of wood. That is, in transport accessibility should be some kinds of shops, such as sawmill, furniture production.
- Paper waste. near a paper mill or a warehouse of waste paper.
- Vegetable products. husk from the processing of sunflower seeds or nutshells.
It is quite possible that the creation or purchase of the press is the next step in the development of one’s own business. That is, if you have a sawmill or a sawmill shop there is always a question. where to dispose of waste?
Advantages and disadvantages
Availability of inexpensive raw materials economically justifies the presence of a press for briquettes and their use as fuel. For example, they can heat a woodworking shop or heat a greenhouse. Naturally, these conditions make it possible to use compacted waste for the domestic needs of their own home.
To make it clear, here is the table with heat characteristics of different kinds of fuel:
|Types of fuel||Specific heating value, in kWh (average)|
|Firewood of hardwood||3,23,6|
|Briquetted sunflower husk||5,0|
|Briquettes made of wood chips and shavings||4,24,8|
One more example, showing the ratio of calorific values.
To get a certain unit of heat, will require:
- Natural gas, needs about 960 m³.
- Fuel oil. up to 1000 liters.
- Fuel oil, 1350 liters.
- Compressed wood waste, 2800-4000 kg.
- Wood (firewood), 3200 kg.
From the given options we can see that the processed waste in terms of heat production is close to some types of fuel. Given the availability of raw materials, it becomes advantageous to use fuel cells made in-house.
A significant advantage is the low ash content, not exceeding 5-8%, and the ash is a good fertilizer for restoring the properties of the soil.
- The end product is hygroscopic material, so care must be taken of the dry place for storage.
- Compressed waste has little mechanical strength, which leads to the formation of dust, which can cause allergic reactions, and in large volumes. the creation of explosive and fire hazardous mixture.
The main purpose of using the press is the processing of combustible waste into fuel briquettes. One of the varieties of equipment can be used for the production of pellets. small-sized briquettes, which are used, for example, as fillers for pet trays.
Conventionally, industrial equipment is divided into:
To decide on the choice of one or another type of equipment, it is advisable to consider a number of factors:
- Availability of sources of raw materials in transport accessibility.
- Approximate average weighted volume of the obtained material for processing.
- Type of raw waste.
- Own demand for the finished product.
- Possibility to sell surplus fuel briquettes.
- Availability of power sources, water (relevant for industrial production).
If we talk about industrial production, here fuel briquettes are made using one of three possible technologies:
- through hydraulic presses and under high pressure. the result is products that look like small bricks;
- screw presses with pressure and thermal treatment. resulting in empty polyhedron shaped briquettes;
- by means of hydraulic or mechanical presses under high pressure. resulting in cylindrical products.
To learn more about the process, watch the following video.
Production of leaf mulch
It will be very profitable to supplement the production of briquettes from pressed leaves by creating compost. It can be used by gardeners to wrap plants for winter, protect them from drying out in the summer, or to improve the structure of the soil. Leaf humus has a loose structure, has conditioning qualities, and helps retain moisture at plant roots.
It is better to produce compost when it rains, but if the leaves are dry they need to be moistened. For those who also produce logs, you can use the chaff left over from the baling process. The leaf material is pressed into boxes with mesh walls. To speed up the ripening process of the mulch, it is useful to add green grass to the leaves. It speeds up the process and improves the quality of the compost by alternating layers of garden soil and moistened leaves, as well as by using shredded leaf material. Shredding leaves can be done using a garden vacuum cleaner or lawn mower.
If done correctly, young compost will be ready in about a year, just in time to wrap up flowerbeds and garden trees and shrubs for the winter cold. Such humus can be used for soil mulching, for leveling beds, added to garden plots and flower containers, and used as a soil acidifier. After selling last year’s batch of compost, you can start collecting and harvesting new fallen leaves. If desired, some humus may be left to mature. This process usually takes 1.5 to 3 years. Matured leaf humus is good for seedlings, sowing seeds and mixed with garden compost for the cultivation of indoor plants.
If you implement two business projects at the same time you can get practically waste-free production option. The profit is obvious, and the costs, given the free raw material in huge quantities, are minimal.
To organize at home the production of pellets from sawdust makes sense in two cases:
- When all the equipment is self-made with minimal costs for parts and components.
- If you bought a small pelletizer, whose performance is enough to produce pellets for their own needs and not a smaller amount. for sale, in order to recoup the purchase of equipment.
To make the equipment yourself is not an easy task, but if you have time, patience and skills quite feasible. Buy the same press. granulator for sawdust in order to provide pellet heating of a private home economically unprofitable. As evidenced by a simple calculation, shown in the