Classification of band saw blades, basic parameters and best manufacturers
The speed at which the material is processed depends on how properly the band saw has been selected. This multi-cutting tool is a flexible band of metal, which has a circular shape, along one edge of which there are teeth. A saw is required for the operation of band saws.
Carbon steel is used for band saws, it has high wear resistance. Blades made of bimetallic material and bandsaws with blades that have hardfacing applied to the teeth are available for sale.
The band saw blade width (generally delivered to customers in coils or bundled into bands) ranges from 13 to 80 mm. For machines where vertical cutting is used, smaller band saw blades are made (up to 6 mm).
Based on the variety of uses, the following classification of blades is made:
- М42. This bimetal blade is used for cutting material made of carbon steel.
- М51. It is used for sawing material made of high-carbon steel as well as its alloy.
- SP. This blade is preferred for cutting rare and heat-resistant alloys.
- TPI. Manufacturing companies produce them for machining materials made of hard alloys or those with a heterogeneous structure.
When selecting products, pay attention to the TPI index, which reflects the number of teeth per 1 inch. It is worth knowing what material the workpiece is made of. It affects thickness and the neatness of the cut.
The higher the TPI value, the slower the cutting speed and the narrower the kerf. This results in a cleaner cut
If you are going to saw wood, it is better to choose a band with 3 TPI or higher. When working with metal, we recommend a blade with a TPI between 4 and 20.
Teeth in the band differ not only in their distance from each other, but also in their shape. There are 2 types of tines. One of them is called a skip. It is most common on bands with a small pitch (3 to 6), which creates a larger sawdust ejection area.
The second type is called regular. It is triangular in shape and, unlike the skip teeth, has no extra space for sawdust. For this reason, they are used when sawing very thick objects or hard materials.
There are many types of blades, here are the most popular:
- 3 TPI skip. It’s a good choice if you need to cut thick materials quickly. Product is used for cutting wood lengthwise.
- 4 TPI skip. This belt type is suitable for universal sawing.
- 6 TPI skip. Blades are needed when the machine is running at medium speed, they can be used for longitudinal sawing of wood up to 50 mm thick and cross sawing up to 150 mm.
- 10 TPI regular is required when working with synthetic materials such as plywood, plastic, etc. With low feed speed, suitable for cutting wood of 50 mm in thickness.
- 14 TPI regular. At a low feed rate, it can be used for cutting various materials up to 25 mm thick. Used when working with light metals.
The service life of the blade depends on the company that produced it.
What steel is a two-handed saw made of?
What saws are: basic types and characteristics of the tool
Take saws away from people, and progress stops. This statement is not a joke. Without a tool that can cut through wood, metal, concrete and stone, it is impossible to run industrial plants and other areas of commodity production.
You can’t do without saws in the household, either. Everyone has at least one hacksaw, and a good craftsman can find a whole arsenal of “dental assistants”.
We’ll look at the most common types of saws to get an idea of their performance and application functions.
It all started with a simple hacksaw
It is this saw that is the progenitor of the family of hand tools for woodworking. As soon as the first ingot of iron was melted, man had the idea to create a tool to cultivate the land at his.
It can be assumed that the second, after the hoe, was the axe. The third was probably a saw with a handle, known to us today as a hacksaw. Over the centuries, since its invention, it has acquired many “brothers and sisters,” doing dozens of different jobs.
The accepted classification divides this type of hand saw into two groups:
Depending on the direction of cutting, handheld wood saws are divided into three categories:
The difference between them lies in the shape of the cutting teeth: in the longitudinal saw, they are inclined forward, while for the cross-cutting saw they are straight.
The universal hacksaw blade is also angled forward, but has a special sharpening. This allows you to see along and across fibers.
Hand saws are divided into several types by prior arrangement:
- Classic hacksaws (transversal or longitudinal cutting);
- Screw saws (for cutting holes);
- Steel saws (for cutting tie rods).
When choosing a hand hacksaw, not only the shape, but also the size of the teeth is important.
There are three types of cutters:
- Fine tooth. 2.0-2.5 mm (for precision cutting and cutting small items);
- The medium tooth is 3.0-3.5 mm (for medium sizes);
- Large tooth. 4.0-6.0 mm (for rough cuts in wood and logs).
The international classification divides hacksaws not by tooth height, but by the number of teeth per 1 inch of cutting blade. This standard caught us, so don’t be surprised if you see the letters PPI or TPI on the tool label. The number behind them. Is the number of teeth per inch of length. The more, the smaller the tooth (e.g. PPI 8 or TPI 14).
Today you may see an upgraded type of hacksaw on the market. They can easily be distinguished by the intervals cut on the canvas. As a result, the teeth are arranged in groups of six or seven.
This tool is designed for cutting raw wood. Gaps between the teeth are necessary so that wet chips do not clog the kerf and can be easily removed during operation.
In addition to the conventional hand hacksaw, users now have an electrified version of the tool. The powerful electronic cutter can easily handle a lot of lumber without being too tedious for the owner.
Its versatility of use is achieved by configuring the saws with different blade lengths and widths and tooth sizes. It allows you to work successfully not only on wood, but also on plastic and metal. Another name for this tool is the reciprocating saw.
The main parameter that characterizes the capabilities of electronic knives is the power. It ranges from 400 to 1600 watts. The cutting depth is directly dependent on it, which varies from 90 mm for domestic, up to 200 mm for professional models.
Hand tools for metal working are not so diverse. There is only one type of hand knives that can cut this material. Its working body. Wide or narrow blade with fine toothed teeth. It is inserted into the arch beam holder and tightened with a screw.
The idea of replacing the reciprocating circular motion of the cutting blade can be called revolutionary. It emerged after the advent of the electric motor and has greatly increased the speed and productivity of work.
A typical representative tool that uses this principle is. circular saw. Its main advantages. mobility and high power set back the modest capabilities of the hand saw.
Gear and gearless. In the first case, the electric motor rotates the gear, on the shaft of which there is a saw blade. The second option. attach the disk directly to the rotor shaft of the electric motor. Both designs have a mechanism for adjusting the depth of cut and angle.
The advantage of toothed mechanisms is the ability to make a deeper cut. Reducers without a gear have two advantages: less weight and affordable price.
Two-handed saw Germany ’70
Bought for 70 UAH. in Ivano-Frankivsk. Here’s the seller’s description. Saws
(3 units.)Manufactured and imported from the GDR in 70
Soviet times Druzhba, handle amaranth, impregnation linen olive.
Second category of differences. saw blade features. It can be active or passive. Here everything is determined by the shape of the tooth. On the active disc, the teeth are bent in the direction of rotation.
In the passive, they are angled against the impact (negative sharpening angle).
Passive circular saw blades are indispensable. Active are used for woodworking. Carbide taps can be applied to the teeth of the disc. They allow you to cut through tougher materials, but they have a negative impact on the cut’s cleanliness.
The working capacity of the tool depends on the motor power (from 0,65 to 2,5 kW). Manufacturers also specify the maximum depth of cut that can be made with a circular saw (from 25 to 85 mm).
A variation of this power tool is the circular saw, which is mounted on a fixed frame. This solution allows you to cut long and wide material with high precision.
Some manufacturers offer an interesting compromise. Manual circular saws that can be rotated and fixed on a table, turning it into a stationary “round”.
Choosing a band saw
Class. the first thing you need to pay attention to. Depending on the capabilities of all band saws can be divided into three classes, we have two of them. the most popular. About them in more detail:
- Domestic (TRIOD BSM-115U/230 211016, METALMASTER PT-100). or as they are called, “light” machines. The easy to use and simple to design saws. They have manual feed, so the operator lowers the frame with a saw blade by himself. These devices are designed for cutting of soft metals and non-metallic materials, they do not require coolant. They are most often used in private workshops.
- Semi-professional (Blacksmith S20.12 H205x215 B, JET 349V). “medium” machines with power over 700 W. This saw is semi-automatic, its frame is lowered by the hydraulic system without user assistance, the user only needs to return the workpiece to initial position after sawing is finished. It is worth noting that there are some models of equipment that do not need this either. A man should only remove and feed the workpiece. semi-professional equipment is designed for working with soft and hard metals, so it has a coolant supply. The machine of this class can be found both in the industrial enterprise, and in private use. They are high-performance saws that pay for themselves in a fairly short period of use.
Important points when selecting band saws
To choose a band saw blade it is important to consider the future operating conditions. If the tool meets the production requirements, it will last as long as possible. To prevent products from going bad prematurely, make sure
That the blade matches the material of the workpiece;
The optimal cutting speed is set on the machine;
If these parameters are met, the blade will last 140-160 hours of continuous operation. Buy consumables for all types of equipment from Rincom. You can also order Heller segment saws from us.
Polishing is a complete finishing operation on the workpiece. It eliminates minor defects such as scuffs, chips and scratches. The surface gets a noble shine and the product gets a marketable look.
Gear teeth are shaped on the ends of transmission elements using gear shaping machines. The operations are carried out in two ways.
Drilling of rails. it is a preliminary procedure that is carried out when laying and repairing railroad tracks. The measure involves the preparation of holes for fixing the elements with bolts, plates or hooks. Special types of drill bits (22; 28 and 36 mm) and drilling equipment are used in the process.
The home handyman and production technician can benefit from knowing how to use a caliper. The tool provides high accuracy of measurements during mounting, repairing and commissioning works. It is characterized by ease of operation, ease of use and long service life.
Modern manufacturers offer many types of jigsaw blades. Products differ in the type of shank, tooth setting parameters, purpose and marking. Quality, speed and ease of work depend on right choice of blade.
Choice of manufacturer
There are many saw blade producers on the market and the palm of the best one is challenged regularly; therefore it is correct to split all producers into three price groups and mark the best ones in each group:
- Inexpensive blades. Lenz, Womaco, Rontgen. German companies with traditional quality for a low price. Bahco is a Swedish brand with production in Belarus, as a great alternative to Chinese dumping, and many machine tool manufacturers order them into their product line.
- Middle price segment. Arntz is a German manufacturer which has been producing accessories for band saws for more than 200 years. Quality monitoring and technology updates result in constant performance improvement of the tool. Honsberg. German quality close to the top models for reasonable money. Swedish manufacturers Munkforssagar, Uddeholm, Sandvik are very popular in northern latitudes sawmills as they offer good quality at low temperatures for a reasonable price.
- Expensive premium class blades. Lenox. a US company that regularly tops hit parades and reviews. Lenox’s regular competitors not only in the USA, but all over the world, the Americans from Wood-Mizer and Simonds show excellent results in many “disciplines” and take the first places. Wikus is another brand from Germany with wide range of models and excellent quality.
There is no one-size-fits-all product that will meet all customer needs. That’s why you have to pay attention to a number of things when buying. For example, the width needs to be matched to the type of work. It ranges from 14 to 80 mm. Models for 31-41 mm are considered to be the standard. To avoid confusion, you can refer to the manual of your machine. As a rule, it always indicates the main characteristics of the desired blade. By following the specific parameters, you can get the right variant that will make the machine work in a highly productive way.
Type of teeth
The teeth of the cutting belt have a specific arrangement. It is not straight, but deviated sideways from the plane of the main belt. The type of this arrangement is called a setting, which can be different. To date, it is divided into three types: straight, wavy and alternating.
Turning the teeth alternately to the right and to the left makes for a wider cut. This eliminates the possibility of the band jamming in the workpiece. often today we buy blades with this shape:
Blades of the first type are used for packages of solid blanks, pipes and profiles. The second option is considered universal, but experience shows that it is better suited for work with soft metals. The third type is used when working with thin-walled pipes and small billet sizes.
The shape of teeth on band saw blades also differs. Developed standard solutions allow to choose the variant in accordance with the requirements of the buyer.
- NORMAL teeth edge is in an upward direction relative to the blade. This shape does not have a bevel, it is used when cutting parts made of high-carbon steel.
- HOOK has a front slope of 10 degrees. Solid bars of different cross sections, made of alloyed steel, can be cut with these teeth. Thick-walled blades can also be cut with this blade.
- The RP variant is characterized by the cutting edge inclination of 16 degrees. Blades with such tooth form are bought for work with non-ferrous alloys. It is also possible to use such a band for cutting hard-to-cut alloys.
- MASTER is considered the most universal and widespread form. Its bevel can be 10 and 15 degrees, there is also a grinding of the longitudinal edge, which reduces the roughness of the machined edge.
Metal band saw blades can be further differentiated by the number of teeth. The choice of pitch directly affects the quality of the cut. With constant pitch, the number of teeth can range from 2 to 32 per 1 inch. As a result, the greater the number, the finer the thickness of the workpiece to be cut. In analogues with variable pitch, the number of teeth ranges from 2 to 14 per 1 inch. The choice of the right tooth pitch is chosen taking into account the thickness of pipe walls and profiles to be worked with in the future.
Cutting mode will depend on different indicators. One of them is the material to be processed. You have to consider the steel group and alloy, as well as the size of the part itself and the pitch of the teeth. Here you have to choose a concrete brand name, because this factor also defines the quality and efficiency of the blade.
The speed at which the belts rotate is not the same; the salesperson will point this out when you buy them. It is important to determine also the feed speed of the band saw blade, because ideally each tooth of the saw should cut chips of a certain thickness. Every machine has its own set speed, so you’ll have to choose the right value based on that. Of course you can do experiments, buy a band and see how good it performs based on the chips. However, it is better to choose the right variant from the beginning, because the quality of the work performed directly depends on it. It is also important to understand that band saw blade power and life are not infinite.
When buying, you need to rely on the recommendations of companies producing this category of goods. You can also use the speed and performance tables. Although they show average values and actual values may vary slightly, it’s better than guessing by experimentation.
Belt speed and feed rate are key criteria. Based on them, select the modifications of blades, tooth pitch, setting.
Set is the tilt or turning angle of the tooth relative to the blade plane and is used to allow the blade and tooth edge to move freely. There are different types of adjustments. Standard set-up consists of a repeating combination of right, left, and straight teeth. Right-left set is especially useful for cutting soft materials, such as non-ferrous metals, plastics, wood, etc. Wave” setting is a special setting for cutting thin-wall profiles, small-diameter blanks, pipes, etc.п. Combination saw is used for cutting pipes, profiles with variable cross section, and packages.
|Form NORMAL (N). Tooth has a 0° rake angle. Saws with this tooth design are designed for cutting alloys with high carbon content (e.g., cast iron), for materials with small cross sections and thin-walled profiles and pipes.|
|HOOK (H) shape. Tooth has 10° rake angle. Saws with this tooth design are designed for cutting solid bars, thick-walled alloyed steel pipes.|
|RP shape. tooth has a 16° rake angle. HOOK saws are designed for aggressive cutting of solid bars in high-alloyed steels, hard-to-machine metals and non-ferrous alloys.|
|MASTER cutter. Tooth is made in two versions with 10° and 16° rake angle. Has a longitudinally ground chamfer that improves the roughness of the work surface. Saws with this tooth design are designed for cutting solid bars in high-alloyed steel.|
Oleg: “I have a workshop in my garage. The floor is wood, so I would not risk working with an angle grinder. A friend recommended me to buy a band saw. I chose the most compact one, so it would not take up much space. A pleasant impression of the machine. Recommended for purchase!”.
Alexey: “I am engaged in cutting copper blanks for electrodes for the spark erosion machine. After much deliberation I bought a band saw and the work went faster. The main thing is to clean the machine more often and remove the blade after work, otherwise the band will get stretched and start to fly off. And the band saw is very well made.
Ruslan: “I used to have a jigsaw, but it vibrated a lot and was hard to work with. I made up my mind to buy a band saw, and now I don’t even use a jigsaw, as it turned out to be much more functional! I do not regret the money I spent”.