Hacksaw. Types and Work. How to choose and what to use. Teeth
A hacksaw is a hand held carpentry and metalwork tool that is a form of saw. Depending on its design, it can be used for cutting wood, metal, plastic, aerated concrete, and other materials. The tool consists of two parts. The working blade with sharp teeth and the handle for a comfortable grip.
The hacksaw is one of the oldest tools. It appeared much earlier than the modification for working with metals. There are several varieties:
Also known as wide or normal, it is the standard handheld saw. Designed for making cuts in longitudinal or cross cuts. Can be used to shorten a board or cut a branch. It is a standard carpentry and joinery tool. This gives a quick cut but is quite coarse and produces a coarse chip. Its teeth are triangular in shape, the pitch between them is from 1.5 to 6.5 mm.
Circular or narrow
This is a more narrowly focused tool. Its small blade width makes it possible to cut curvilinear elements. The main purpose of such a tool is not the usual trimming, but the ability to cut sheet material when you want to work on a strictly defined contour. The narrow blade is more maneuverable and allows you to bypass outlined curves, which cannot be done with wide saws. These saws are much lighter and more compact. They can have teeth on both sides that vary in size. This allows them to produce clean cuts of varying purity. A smoother cut can be made by choosing shallower cutters.
Also called “kerf” or “shoe”, this is a specific tool, the main purpose of which is to remove projecting thorns and grooves. Carpenters and joiners use these saws to get a clean, smooth cut. The blade of this tool is the thinnest, so the cut is narrow. To keep the blade from bending constantly, a shank that increases stiffness is hooked on the opposite side from the cutters. Because of the shank, it is not possible to make a deeper cut than the height of the blade. This tool has fine, isosceles triangle-shaped teeth. It is used exclusively for crosscutting. Working part thickness does not exceed 1-1,5 mm.
Types of teeth
Wood is a specific material, sawing of which can have complications depending on the direction. In this regard, hacksaws are divided into three categories:
Hacksaw blades with special cutters that are angled forward at an acute angle. Their movement causes the wood fibers to shear off and the sawdust to chip off. This equipment ensures the quickest possible operation when a board must be cut in the direction of the fibers. This produces relatively coarse sawdust, the size of which depends on the height of the teeth. The larger they are, the faster the work goes. In case of necessity to cut even a thin branch, such a saw will be ineffective.
A straight-toothed hacksaw is used. Such a tool would be an excellent choice for cutting boards or branches in the garden. It is suitable for cutting firewood or shortening a shovel handle. The vast majority of all handheld wood sawing equipment is crosscut.
This is a modification of the crosscut, but with a special sharpening of the teeth to compensate for the lack of an angle of attack to the wood fibers. There are also specialized types of hacksaws in which the teeth are arranged in groups of several. There is a small space between the clusters. Such a tool is designed to work with raw wood. The indentation between the cutters ensures cleaning of wet chips, which are removed on their own without the need for manual cleaning.
Specialized design with pobedite tips was developed especially for working with aerated concrete. This tool provides a firmer plunge cut into the surface and speeds up the cutting of tough materials. Such a hacksaw is good for both cross and rip cuts.
When choosing a saw, you should pay attention not only to the direction of the teeth, but also their size. There are 3 types of cutters:
- 2-2,5 mm. For precise work with small parts.
- 3-3,5 mm. For medium-sized workpieces.
- 4-6mm. For rough cuts in lumber and firewood.
Metal hacksaws have a special design, which consists of a cutting blade and a frame for fixing it. Blades are replaceable. They have small teeth, which are specially hardened. The blade itself is made of high-speed steel, but nevertheless, as a result of operation it wears out rather quickly, also there are cases of breaking of individual teeth. Dimensions of such a tool rarely exceed 400 mm in length. The depth of cut is limited by the height of the frame.
How to understand a metal saw?
If, for example, the end of a nail is sticking out of a board in a very visible place and cannot be covered in any way. If you bend it, you can still see it. And with a metal hacksaw you can saw off the protruding tip in seconds.
Saws. A tool with many cutters, usually teeth, for cutting (sawing) different materials: wood, metal, plastic, stone and others. Usually the saw has the form of an elongated metal plate or disk with teeth on the working edge.
Classification of saws for cutting aerated concrete
When choosing saws for processing foam concrete, it is necessary to know what types of tools are available. The devices differ in two main ways. The type of drive mechanism, and the type of cutting device. What are hacksaws for working with foam concrete?
- According to the type of drive devices are classified into manual, gasoline and electric. Manual ones are inexpensive, but they require physical effort from the master. Electric ones cope with the task quickly, but they are 5-6 times more expensive than manual ones, and they also require an electricity connection. Gasoline-powered tools are considered self-contained, because they are powered by an internal combustion engine, but such tools are twice as expensive as their electric counterparts
- By the type of cutting equipment the devices can be of the saber, belt and disk type. Manual tool has a saber-type blade, which has carbide pobedite inserts on the teeth. Band and circular saws are also equipped with tungsten carbide tips
This is interesting! You can saw aerated concrete with an angle grinder by installing a diamond-coated disc in the spindle. When using an angle grinder, one must keep in mind that even the largest wheel diameter on the angle grinder does not allow for cross-cutting of the material. Angle grinder is usually used as an auxiliary tool when working with aerated concrete.
What is different from the saw?
Many people do not understand the difference between an ordinary saw and a hacksaw. In fact, the hacksaw is not a stand-alone tool, but a separate kind of saw. Its peculiarities are reduced to the fact that it can be used strictly by hand, the cut is made by intensive reciprocating movements.
Saws in general can be not only manual, but also electric, and in addition, operating on liquid fuel. Gasoline. They can move back and forth as well as rotate (say, like circular saws).
Hacksaws are distinguished by a single handle, while saws often have more than one handle.
The tool blade is straight, except for plywood saws with slightly rounded edges. In other variants of the saws, it may represent a circular disk, as well as a band of closed type or a shimmering chain.
The action of any hacksaw is produced by means of the cutters, which may vary in size and shape. Other types of boards may have spraying instead, for example, small diamond particles on the edge of the cutting edge.
Metal hand hacksaw its purpose, types and how to choose
The relevance of handheld metal hacksaws remains high, as this type of tool has many advantages and only one disadvantage. This is the first tool that was invented by man to cut metal workpieces.
Today, every self-respecting craftsman has at least one option among the various types of this tool in his arsenal.
Handheld metal hacksaw is popular because the tool is always ready to work in the absence of an angle grinder and electricity.
Design parameters of hand hacksaws for metal
Metal hand hacksaw looks quite simple:
- U-shaped base or frame, predominantly in metal
- Handle of various shapes for hand work
- Metal blade for hand hacksaw or cutting element fixed on the edges of the frame
These are the basic elements that make up handheld metal hacksaws. An important part is the blade, which has a distinctive toothed shape. Smaller teeth are especially designed for work with harder materials.
The blade is fastened to the frame. Alloy steel is used for the frame. Frames come in many shapes, forms, and designs. Professional handhelds have a blade angle adjustment feature. There are such versions of frames, which are able to extend. This feature in the tool makes it possible to install cutting elements of different lengths.
Handle is also important because it makes the tool comfortable and convenient to use. Handles come in different shapes and are made of such materials as wood, metal, and plastic. The simplest handle is made of wood, but the most comfortable handle is considered to be of two-component composition: metal and rubber insert.
Blade for hand hacksaw for metal. Thin strip, which is made of hard steel, and has different lengths. There are wedge-shaped teeth on one or both sides.
The saw blade is the most delicate part of the tool, so when working it is important to control the rigidity of its fastening.
Cutting elements for hand saw blades are made according to the method of thermal processing of teeth, which allows to prolong the lifetime of the product.
It is important to pay attention to! Blade for hand hacksaw is not designed for sharpening, so when the teeth are worn out, it needs to be replaced. Today there are coils made of bimetal and hardened metal (nickel-plated stainless steel). They differ in color: bimetal blades are painted in different colors, and fully hardened blades have dark color.
When choosing a blade attention is paid to its length. Length of the blade can be from 10 cm up to 70 cm. Classical mechanical hacksaw for metal manual mower allows the usage of 30 cm long blades, because such dimensions of the tool are the most comfortable and convenient for work.
What are hand hacksaw blades for metal
Handheld metal hacksaws are designed for cutting metal materials. This is not the only purpose of the tool, as it has proven itself in relation to such materials as plastic, particle board, foam plastic, polystyrene foam, plexiglass, ceramics, laminate.
Considered saw for sawing metal. It is a very necessary tool in the household, because in the absence of an angle grinder, it can always help in the situation. To saw off the cap of an oxidized bolt or re-saw a steel wire.
The big disadvantage of such a tool is the great expense of physical strength and time. The presence of fine teeth is reflected in the time to achieve results. To get a result from the master requires not only the application of titanic force, but also patience.
The result of long-term and hard work with the tool is an extremely precise cut, which at times surpasses the cut with an angle grinder.
Types of handheld metal saws
There are the following types of metal saws:
- Home. The simplest variants, which are available in the set of every craftsman. Such devices are considered an obsolete version, but their production continues to this day. The advantage of these tools is the simplicity of design. The handle is made of wood, and is located in the same plane as the blade
- Professional appliances are designed for continuous use. These products have a more comfortable handle, which in addition can be rubberized. Some expensive models are equipped with a mechanism for adjusting the angle of the cutting part during work
- Mini hacksaws or metal saw handle has a special shape, which differs from the first two types. Such products are intended for use only when there are difficulties with access to the part to be sawed. Device is in the shape of a knife with an additional point for clamping the blade. The handle is made of plastic and metal with rubber
How to saw with a hand saw on metal
A handheld metal saw requires the craftsman to follow the following rules of operation:
- Adopting the right stance to the craftsman. You have to put your feet firmly on the floor and work with the device only with two hands, so make sure the workpiece is securely clamped in the jaws of the vice right from the beginning
- Securely clamping the blade. Hacksaw blades are very fragile, so if the product will “wiggle” from side to side if it is not properly secured, in one moment it will simply break
- Correct sawing movements. In order to saw a part, it is necessary not only to hold the tool correctly, but also to work with it. Pressing of the tool to the workpiece being sawed is performed by moving forward, and when returning to the opposite position the pressure is released. The teeth of the blade will dull quickly if the clamping pressure is not reduced during the return motion of the tool
It is important to pay attention to! Blade on the frame of a hand hacksaw should be fixed in position with teeth facing in the opposite direction from the handle.
Choosing the right tool or what to look for
To choose the best metal hand saw, pay attention to the following parameters:
Saws. Types and operation. How to choose and what to use. Teeth
A hacksaw is a manual joinery tool that is a type of saw. Depending on the design, it can be used for cutting wood, metal, plastic, aerated concrete and other materials. The tool consists of two parts. A working blade with sharp teeth and a handle for a comfortable grip.
Hand saws come in two configurations. Wood and metal. Saw blades for wood have large teeth and can also be used for cutting aerated concrete and drywall.
Metal saws can cut virtually any material including wood, plastic, drywall, aerated concrete, styrofoam, Styrofoam, etc.
They have fine cutters, so the cut is neat and a fine chip is formed.
Also known as wide or regular, this is the standard hand-held tool for sawing. It is designed to cut longitudinally or transversely. You can use it to shorten a board or cut a branch.
This is a standard carpentry and joinery tool. This saw makes a quick cut, but the cut is quite coarse and produces coarse chips. Its teeth are triangular and spaced between 1.5 to 6.5 mm.
Cylindrical or narrow
This is a more specialized tool. Due to the small width of the blade it can be used to cut curvilinear elements. The main purpose of such tool is not the usual trimming, but the ability to cut sheet material when work on a strictly defined contour is required.
Narrow blade is more maneuverable and allows you to bypass marked curves, which cannot be done with wide hacksaws. Such saws are much lighter and more compact. They can have teeth on both sides that differ in size. This makes it possible to produce cuts of varying purity.
Choosing shallower teeth it is possible to make a smoother cut.
Also called a cleaver or a shoe hacksaw, this is a specific tool whose main purpose is to remove protruding cleats and grooves. Carpenters and joiners use these saws for a clean, smooth cut. The blade of this tool is the thinnest, so the cut is narrow.
So that the blade does not permanently bend on the opposite side from the cutters, a shim is hooked on to increase the stiffness of the blade. Due to the blade’s cutting edge, it is not possible to make a deeper cut than the height of the blade. Such tools have fine, isosceles triangle-shaped teeth. It is used exclusively for cross cutting.
Working part thickness up to 1-1,5 mm.
For a longitudinal cut
The hacksaw has special teeth, which are inclined forward at an acute angle. Their movement causes the wood fibers to shear off and the sawdust to chip off.
This equipment guarantees the fastest possible work in cases where a board needs to be split in the direction of the fibers. Quite large sawdust is produced, the size of which depends on the height of the teeth.
One Hand Hack Utility Saws Review Comparison
The larger they are, the faster the work goes. In the case of the need to cut even a thin branch, such a saw would be ineffective.
A straight-toothed hacksaw is used. Such a tool would be an excellent choice for facing boards or cutting branches in the garden. This is the right one for cutting firewood or shortening a shovel cutter handle. The vast majority of all handheld wood sawing equipment is crosscut.
This is a modification of the transverse, but with a special sharpening of the teeth, which makes up for the lack of the resulting angle of attack to the wood fibers.
There are also specialized types of hacksaws in which the teeth are arranged in groups of several. There is a small gap between the groups. Such a tool is designed for working with raw wood.
The indentation between the cutters ensures cleaning of wet chips, which can be removed on their own without the need for manual cleaning.
Especially for working with aerated concrete a special specialized design with pobedite tips has been developed. This tool has a tighter penetration into the surface and cuts very quickly through tough materials. Such a hacksaw is good for both cross and rip cuts.
When selecting a saw one should pay attention not only to the direction of the teeth but also to their size. There are 3 types of cutters:
- 2-2,5 mm. For precision work with small parts.
- 3-3,5 mm. For medium-sized workpieces.
- 4-6 mm. For rough cutting of logs and firewood.
Metal hacksaw has a special design, which consists of a cutting blade and a frame for fixing it. The blades are replaceable. They have small teeth, which are specially hardened.
It is made of high-speed steel, but nevertheless it wears out rather quickly as a result of operation, also there are cases of breaking of separate teeth. Dimensions of such a tool rarely exceed 400 mm in length.
The depth of cut is limited by the height of the frame.
At the ends of the blade there are holes through which the fastener to the frame can be inserted.
Also consider that the direction of the teeth for cutting is of particular importance, so the blades are marked with arrows, guided by which you can carry out the correct fixing. If you get the wrong side, the speed of work is significantly reduced.
How to choose a hacksaw?
Before choosing in the store, what is the best hacksaw for wood or other material, it is worth knowing the basic criteria for buying a quality tool that will last long and properly:
- Specialization of the model you like. It is worth carefully selecting what material will be worked with. Tools for aerated concrete and work in the garden are significantly different.
- Steel grade from which the cutting blade is made. Fast-cutting and carbon alloys with blade strength of 45 HRC and cutting edge strength of not less than 60 HRC behave the best in work.
- The sharpening of the teeth affects the quality of the cut in a certain direction or work in hard-to-reach places. Universal sharpening is somewhat inferior in quality of cut to more specialized models.
- Blade length varies not only among different models, but also among tools of the same category.
- Handle comfort. This parameter is especially important if the master will carry out a large amount of work with the tool. The more convenient the hacksaw will fit in the palm of your hand, the less tired your hand will be.
A special type of tool that has appeared relatively recently is the cordless sabre saw, otherwise known as an electric hacksaw. This tool comes in handy when performing a large amount of construction or garden work. Compact size makes it possible to use a hacksaw in tight spaces where a regular saw would be difficult to handle. Such a hacksaw should be selected according to the following characteristics:
- Battery capacity, which has a direct effect on how long the battery will run before it needs recharging. Professional models have a service life of about 5 hours. Before battery change.
- Voltage, which affects how much power and how much movement the saw has to perform per unit of time.
- Possibility to connect additional batteries to increase the working capacity.
A special kind of tool is a hacksaw for foam blocks, specially designed to divide or remove excess parts of aerated concrete. This fragile material requires a special tool with hard-alloyed tips on the teeth. Thanks to this technology it is possible to
- Longer tool life. Special tips prevent wear and abrasion of the teeth, so you can cut a lot of aerated concrete.
- A hacksaw for drywall or wood is considerably sharper, but it cannot be used for foam blocks, because the materials have different density and rigidity. Special tooling simplifies and speeds up the process of splitting blocks into parts.
- Eliminate the need to buy expensive electric or gasoline attachments for work with gas silicate.
Tips for use
When handling a hacksaw, safety rules should be followed. Near the vice should be placed in a half-turn, with the left leg slightly forward, so that it is located approximately in line with the workpiece, and leaning on it the whole torso.
The hacksaw should be held with the right hand, the handle should rest on the back of the hand, with the thumb on the handle, the rest of the tool is supported on the lower axis.
When cutting, the hacksaw must be held horizontally and all hand movements must be as smooth as possible without any jerks. The hacksaw should be swinging so that most of the blade is engaged and not just the center areas. The normative length of the optimum swing is about two-thirds of the length of the whole tool.
The tool works at about 40-60 strokes per minute (back and forth strokes are meant). Dense materials are sawn at a slightly slower speed, soft materials faster.
The hacksaw can only be pressed forward, no further force is needed for any other travel; at the end of the sawing operation the pressure applied is significantly reduced.
Hand-operated hacksaw blades perform all work without a cooling system. To reduce material resistance and friction force, graphite grease is used, as well as lard mixed in a 2 to 1 ratio. Such a composition holds for quite a long time.
During sawing the blade periodically turns to the side. As a consequence, the teeth begin to crumble or the tool breaks. In addition, a slot is formed in the object to be cut. The main reason of such troubles is lack of band saw blade tension or unskillful handling of saw blade. If the blade went sideways. It is better to start cutting from the other side, because the attempt to straighten the bevel in most cases ends with tool breakage.
The teeth begin to break if the hardening process is not carried out properly. Besides, damage to cutters occurs as a consequence of excessive pressure on the tool, especially when working with narrow workpieces, or if there are different foreign particles of a hard structure embedded in the material.
If at least one tooth breaks, there is no sense to continue sawing, because it leads to breaking of neighboring cutters and blunting of all remaining ones.
To restore the sawing ability of the hacksaw, the adjacent teeth are ground on the grinding machine, remove the stuck remains of the broken and continue manipulation.
If the blade breaks during operation, the hacksaw goes into the slot, so the workpiece is turned over and start sawing with another tool.