Secrets of Chainsaw Handling
A chainsaw is one of the essential tools of the off-road adventurer. But does everybody know how to use it correctly?? Just in case, we decided to refresh the basics. Several years ago we tested chain saws, and even then I was surprised by the ease with which professionals handled this tool.
At the very least, saws in the hands of amateurs always work more strenuously and less sporadically. It turned out that not only the sharpening of the chain teeth is the secret, which not everybody can do, but also the general principles of operation.
Observations and conversations with professionals convinced me that comfortable work with a chainsaw requires a complex set of skills, some of which are achieved only with great experience. But even something that is available to the unsophisticated user can make clearing a trail of fallen trees or making firewood much easier.
REGULAR and REGULAR sharpeningThe first thing to pay attention to is the correct sharpening of the chain teeth. It is important to have the right angle, which can be determined by the sharpening template, sold separately. A useful thing, especially for those who seldom handle a saw. But even with it at first you will have to struggle: the template only shows how to put a file, and the control over its direction. on your conscience. No need to hurry: the minutes saved during sharpening are not worth the extra effort when sawing.
CONTROLLING THE HEIGHT OF THE CHISTERSIt also happens that the teeth are sharpened as they should be, but the saw still won’t cut. It turns out that you have to watch the right setting of the stops. If they are too high, the cutting edges of the teeth simply can’t reach the wood. Trimming limbs is quick and easy with another template.NO CONTACT WITH THE GROUND Keeping the sharpening is also a tricky business. Non-professionals when cutting low branches or clearing shrubs often touch the ground but don’t pay much attention because they think metal is harder than metal. in fact, the ground works like a fine abrasive on a regular chain. That’s why experts recommend buying a chain with tungsten carbide inserts. It is three to four times more expensive, but it can handle several touches on the ground without visible and perceptible consequences.
Chain tensioning has no direct influence on speed, but improper tensioning can result in either increased wear of the bar (not too expensive, but still) or chain slipping during operation (time loss guaranteed). Recall that proper tensioning is when you pull the chain by hand at the center of the bar and it comes off slightly, but the guides remain in the bar slot. By the way, during the work the chain lengthens because of the heat. Anything, not just new. So it is necessary to control the tension periodically at intervals of ten minutes.
THE RIGHT SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTIONThe difficulty of changing and adjusting a chain depends on the design of your saw. For non-professionals, it is best to choose models with a lighter design that does not require tools or special skills. Such products are more expensive, but the convenience is worth it, believe me.
Amateurs should also like the “easy start” system. It has a different name from manufacturer to manufacturer, but the idea is the same: less effort on the starter rope and the fuel pump greatly facilitates the start, even in awkward positions.
PRODUCE WHEN STARTING Your chain saw is in good working order and shouldn’t be too difficult to start, but it can be a bit tricky to get the spark plug bled with fuel. In this case a blowout is needed, because extra persistence will only lead to even more “flooding” of the electrodes. Therefore, keep the spark plug wrench with you: the spark plug will have to be unscrewed. Then turn the saw upside down with the spark plug hole and pull the starter rope a few times vigorously. Excess fuel usually comes out as vapor, or even pours in extreme cases. And the candle should be at least wiped, or better to ignite.
BEFORE STARTING THE CHAIN BRAKE THE CHAIN. Regardless of the starting method (from the ground or from the weight) engage the inertia brake. Otherwise the chain starts to move and might hit the ground or the operator’s body. The first will not be good for the saw, the second will not be good for its owner.
Now let’s get down to business. We don’t recommend felling big trees unless you have some special training, and most of the time we have to saw logs that are already on the ground, so that’s where we stop.
The ideal height to work with a chainsaw is at or below hip level. If you have a firm footing, you can work at chest height. But it is not a good idea to bring the saw higher up, as it is difficult to control the tool and thus the work is not safe.
The first thing to do is to get rid of the branches. Make sure the trunk is between you and the saw. That’s because if there are a lot of branches you risk hitting them with the tip of the bar in the front. In this case the tool bounces sharply and very quickly upwards. If the saw is exactly in front of you, its target will be your face. Even if the flywheel brake does work as it should (and machinery can be a bitch), hitting a tree in the face with a chain is not a good feeling. And this way the saw will go sideways.
One more thing seems obvious, but not everyone takes it into consideration. The cutting direction should be from the top down if the branch is not thick and hangs horizontally. And if it’s vertical, you have to saw in the direction it’s tilted.
Specialists recommend to saw down branches by turning the tree upside down. But this is not always possible, and you have to work near the ground. Be careful: avoid contact with the ground and control the possible bounce of the guide bar.SO THE TIRE DOESN’T GET JAMMED
Before you dismember a log remove sawed off branches and bushes growing nearby and make sure you have enough freedom of movement. Start by making an auxiliary cut to avoid jamming the guide bar. If you want to cut off the hanging end of the log, make an auxiliary cut from below by about one-third of the diameter, and then finish sawing from above. When the log lies on the support with both sides and you saw in the middle, the first cut is made from the top.
If the tire does get jammed, don’t nervously jerk the saw. You’ll only damage the chain or bend the guide bar. Stop the chain turning and wiggle the log in a direction parallel to the sawing direction. The guide bar will free itself.
Viewing the contents of the document “Sharpening of wood-cutting tools”
Theme of the lesson: Sharpening wood-cutting tools.
Objective: To form in students the skill of sharpening woodworking tools; to teach the rules and sequence of sharpening woodworking tools; to develop technical knowledge of material cutting; to bring up discipline and accuracy when doing the work.
teaching – familiarization with the methods of sharpening and finishing wood-cutting tools, forming the students’ skills of sharpening joinery tools, give the notion of sharpening the teeth of salt saws and hacksaws;
developing – Develop technical knowledge of material cutting;
Educational – to bring up discipline, accuracy and precision in the performance of work.
Equipment of the lesson: wood-cutting tools (chisel, chisel, planer or planer blades, joiner’s hacksaw), abrasive blocks, burrs, triangular file, file in a block, rhombic file, sawdust; PC, presentation “Sharpening of wood-cutting tools”
Teaching methods: story, frontal questioning, demonstration of tools, working techniques, practical work.
Key concepts: wood sharpening tool, sharpening, dressing, deburring, abrasive tool, abrasive stone, prifugovka.
Before you start processing materials with cutting tools it is necessary to check their reliability and operability. Tools should always be set up, well sharpened. In this lesson, students are introduced to the techniques and sequence of sharpening chisels, jigsaws, woodworking hacksaws. The teacher’s explanation of the sharpening process is accompanied by a presentation.
Greetings from the teacher, availability of protective clothing, writing utensils
Execution of the test “Design and technological documentation”
Information about the manufacturing process of products is given:
a set of graphic and text documents;
unified system of design documentation;
Graphic and text documents that define the technology for manufacturing a product.
The main technological documents are:
route, operational chart and technological operation;
the technological, routing and operational chart.
a document in which the entire machining process of the part and product is recorded;
the operation performed at one workplace;
part of the entire production process;
finished part of the technological process, performed at a single workplace;
a description of individual routes, in the manufacturing process.
In the process of work the cutting edge of the tool dulls as a result of abrasion and blunting. Working with such tools is much more difficult, t.к. the chisel no longer cuts the wood fibers, but crumples and tears them. As a result the quality of the tool surface is reduced. Therefore, periodically perform sharpening of cutting tools.
chisel and planer knife sharpening techniques;
Write down the subject of the lesson and the work plan in notebooks.
Narrative and demonstration work
Planer blades, chisel blades, and jigsaws are sharpened with a sharpening machine. It is rotated manually with the help of a handle or with the help of an electric motor. Grind the tool on the sharpening machine until a thin and even burr edge is formed all over the blade.
After sharpening, the tool blade is finished on fine grit size abrasive blocks (burrs). Press tool against block surface with cutting edge and move from side to side in a circular motion. Then they finish chamfering the blade. So, alternating these operations, do until the blade becomes sharp, without burrs. The tool should be periodically rotated from one side to the other until both sides of the blade are shiny and polished. The movement of the hand should become increasingly more frequent and lighter, and the tool should be rotated more frequently. Make sure that the bevel to be ground tightly against the facet.
During sharpening it is necessary to constantly control the quality of the knife sharpening. The cutting edge of a properly sharpened blade is perfectly at right angles to the side. It is possible to check it with the help of an angle.
The quality of sharpening (quality of cut across the fibers) is checked with a wooden bar or a notebook page. You must run your blade across it: if the cut is score-free with even edges, it means that the tool is already sharp enough. The sharpening quality should never be checked with the finger by running the blade lengthways or crosswise.
It is hard and unproductive to work with a saw if it is blunt or faulty. So before starting work it is necessary to organize the saw and make sure that it is properly sharpened.
Sharpening (or surfacing). aligning the height of the teeth. For alignment use a special device, a wooden block with a slit, which is inserted file and saw; contouring teeth until on top of each of them forms a small plane.
Sharpening saw teeth. The teeth along the entire length of the saw are bent alternately in opposite directions.
Depending on the shape of the saw teeth, they are ground differently.
Saws designed for longitudinal sawing are clamped in a vice or on a special fixture. Start with the right side of the file with the triangular file. The leading edge of one tooth and the trailing edge of the adjacent tooth are machined simultaneously. Each tooth is sharpened until the tip is sharp, t. е. An incisal edge is formed.
Saws for material cutting across the fibers are sharpened in a special device that allows you to set the blade at a certain angle, sharpen only the teeth bent “from itself”, directing the file at an angle of 60-70 0 to the blade. Both tooth flanks should be sharpened at the same angle. Then turn the blade and repeat the process. Make sure the file is moved through each tooth of the saw an equal number of times to keep all the teeth at the same height.
Students listen to the teacher and record the basic concepts in their workbooks.
Leveling the height of the links
All teeth must be at the same height.
Uneven edge leads to uneven loading and greatly reduces efficiency.
Checking the height of the hacksaw teeth
Check the height of the teeth before sharpening.
To do this, a sheet of plain paper is placed on a hard and level surface, and the cutters are pressed down firmly until a clear print is obtained.
If any of the teeth protrude from the row, their traces will show up on the print.
If there are higher teeth, they are carefully filed down to the general level with a flat file.
Now the practice of eliminating crooked sawing
How to get rid of this defect? The first thing to do is sharpen the chain using a stationary machine, and move the guide bar the other way.
The chain can also be quickly sharpened by hand, without special equipment, read more. https://sdelaysam-svoimirukami.The first thing to do is to sharpen the chain using a stationary machine and put the bar on the other side.html
If this has been done before, and the tire has uneven wear on both sides, it will have to be flattened. For this you need to get hold of:
The test cut shows that the saw is still going sideways.
Let’s remove and take care of the tire. Let’s put it on a flat surface and put an angle. If there is a gap between them, there is wear.
To fix it, let’s clamp the angle grinder with a sharpening disk in a vise.
On the outer side at the level of the disc make a rigidly fixed plane.
Then, align the disk on the angle and mount the angle grinder.
Now put the guide bar on a horizontal plane and after turning on the angle grinder, sharpen the ribs on both sides. Use the angle grinder to check if the groove is a good one.
Then check that the chain shanks have sufficient height for the guide bar groove. If this is not the case, the guide bar must be replaced with a new one.
Reassemble the saw, tension the chain and check the cutting quality. Cutting should be efficient and the saw should not wander to the side.
How to properly sharpen a chain
Intensive use of the chainsaw leads to a corresponding rate of wear on the cutting teeth, which should be sharpened often. When working with soft wood, the interval between sharpening is approximately 8 hours. Hard or frozen wood, wears out the chain faster and reduces the sharpening interval to 3 hours. If, after the active work of a new saw set, the question arises why the chain on a chainsaw, when you saw, moves to the left or to the right. it is necessary to inspect the teeth. The earlier the sharpening is done, the less metal is removed, which is easier and more economical.
There are several types of specialized tools for sharpening cutting teeth. To understand the technique, it’s recommended to start with the basics and master the classic, manual method. The following manual will show you the procedure and give you the important details about the sawing process. For work it is required to have a holder with a round file, which diameter is determined by the pitch of the chain (table below).
First, the chain saw is locked in a stationary position. It is better to clamp the bar in a vise, but you can also do it with your feet.
For convenience, to see where you started, the first tooth to be sharpened is marked or tied with a string.
Insert the file into the file holder and lock it on both sides. The chain is locked in position with a handbrake.
Using the marking on the jig, position file at an angle of 30 degrees with respect to the guide bar. If you are sharpening a chain for longitudinal sawing, the angle should be 10° (less sharp).
Place the file on the inside of the tooth, with the end pointing slightly upward and the handle. down. As a reference, you can be guided by the sharpening angle you already have.
After determining the position of the tool, press the file against the tooth and push it forward with a steady pulling motion to the full available length. When returning to the starting position, there is no need to press down, and it is better to remove it from the chain at all (sharpening is done only in the forward direction).
To achieve sharpness (with a little wear), it is enough to repeat the previous point 3 times. If the teeth are badly worn or chipped from the nail plaque, it may take many times longer (you have to look at the condition).
Having sharpened the cutter, move on to the next one by stepping over one on the opposite side. During the process, periodically release the hand-brake and turn the chain to move the bottom teeth to a comfortable, upward position.
After sharpening the teeth on one side, change your position or turn the tool over and go to the opposite side.
If the chain is sharpened frequently, the overhang of the cutting part will decrease, approaching the level of the cut stop. As a consequence the depth of plunge into the material and the general efficiency of work will decrease. This problem is solved by evenly grinding down all limiters on each link with a regular flat file.
Wood and metal tools are used for cutting.
Cutting To cut Plexiglas sheets, conventional wood and metal equipment is suitable. To obtain clean cut lines, equipment should be high-speed and vibration-free. All equipment, which is used at work with plexiglas, should be equipped by system of exhaust ventilation for drainage of shavings and hot air.
Plexiglas is easily cut with high quality high speed steel or reinforced carbide tools, in special cases diamond tools can be used. Cutting surfaces of tools must always be sharpened. Worn tools result in unclean cut lines and can cause damage to the workpiece or the tool itself due to overheating caused by increased friction. Therefore such tools can be used only after special sharpening.
When working with Plexiglas sheets great care must be taken with cooling agents. Without cooling there is a risk of overheating, softening and deformation of the material along the cutting line.
Water, soluble oils, paraffin or air blast are suitable as coolants. Do not use standard metal cutting oils and coolants, e.g., acetylene, ethylene chloride, ethylene glycol, or polyvinyl chloride.к. They can contain solvents which attack the plexiglass.
Both surfaces of the Plexiglas sheet are protected by a polyethylene film, which must be kept during the entire processing and removed immediately after mounting of the finished product.
Mark holes, cut lines or contours with a protective foil. If the foil is already removed, use a special pencil to mark directly on the surface of the sheet. Other marking aids should only be used if it is easy to remove their traces at a later stage.
Sawing and notching Sawing sheets of extruded plexiglass can be performed with a circular saw or a band saw. Different jigsaws and hand saws can also be used.
Only circular saws with unset teeth are suitable for cutting plexiglass. For best results, carbide blades with high numbers are recommended. When cutting, the feed rate of the Plexiglas sheets must be adjusted so that no chips occur at the cut edges. Sawing too slowly can cause friction and excessive heating of cut edges.
Recommended number of turns depending on blade diameter:
The band saw has blades with slightly bent teeth. This can lead to uneven cut edges, which usually requires subsequent grinding.
Blade belt width can be from 3 to 13 mm. Number of teeth. 3 to 8 for each centimeter of ribbon length. Speed of sheet feed. 1000-3000 mm/minute.
Plexiglas sheets can be cut with a fine-toothed hand saw such as a hacksaw and a coping saw or jigsaw.
Notches up to 3 mm deep can be made in acrylic. The sheet is repeatedly notched on a ruler or curved template over a broad radius and then broken. Straight pieces can easily be broken off at the edge of the table. It is recommended that the fracture be further trimmed.
Drilling For plexiglass, a spiral drill bit with an apex angle of 60-90° is recommended. The leading angle should be ground to 4°. In this case the drill will give the desired result and it will be possible to avoid chipping of holes when the drill comes out of the sheet.
If the speed is too high and/or the feed rate is too fast, irregular chips will form and the hole will not be clean. At low RPM and/or low feed, overheating occurs, resulting in destruction of material and melting of chips.
Cooling during drilling. Material thicknesses greater than 5 mm require the use of a cooling lubricant emulsion compatible with acrylic. When drilling deep holes and manually adjusting the feed, it is advisable to periodically remove the drill bit from the hole to prevent overheating.
When drilling into thin extruded Plexiglas sheets, a firm, smooth pad should be placed under the material to prevent the bottom of the hole from being chipped. The drill bit should be inserted slowly and carefully.
Special drill bits and countersinks are used in some cases.
3) Special countersink tool. Used to deburr existing holes, ensuring quality chip removal with an angled hole.
Overriding a Sawtooth (Horizon Zero Dawn
5) Combination drill. countersinking. This drill bit is recommended for deburring, boring and countersinking.
When using any special drill bit pay attention to the quality of the tip. In all cases (except milling drills) lower rotational speeds should be used than for twist drills. When using a milling drill, the rotational speed must not exceed 1000 rpm.
In order to obtain clean cut surfaces a thin solid plate should be fixed on the underside of the material.
A circular saw can be used to cut a round hole (up to 60 mm in diameter). For a stable cutting process, the center of the round hole is pre-drilled with a center drill.
Threading When threading all types of plastic, including extruded plexiglass, there is a risk of fracture due to the notch. That’s why this method should be chosen only when no other alternative is possible.
The standard screwdriver and tap are suitable for tapping internal and external threads. Due to the notch sensitivity of the material, threads must have non-sharp edges. For Plexiglas, compatible emulsions and oil for lubrication and cooling of cutting tools should be used. When screwing down afterwards, make sure that there is no oil film on the screws.
Milling Milling equipment can be used to mill the edges of a cut, make roundings, create curved surfaces, and remove the edge of the molded part.
Standard milling machines with higher cutting speeds can be used for extruded Plexiglas. As tools are usually used multi-blade cylindrical cutters, as well as large-toothed double-blade cutters, which effectively remove chips.
Using the wrong chain
There are some nuances in a chainsaw guide bar. One is the width of the chain groove. It can be completely different.
If you take the 1.3 mm pitch chain as an example and put it on a 1.5 mm pitch bar, you may not notice any difference when you tighten the chain. But when the tensioning slackens a little, the 0.2 mm of the chain will drift to one side and the bevel will be crooked again.
Different pitch widths and gaps are possible for the same brand, so you can’t rely on the name alone.
Responding quickly to a problem will lead to an easier solution. As soon as the first signs are noticed, it is worth remedying the fault immediately. Because a broken chain will cause even more trouble if it’s not tightened in time.
The cut edges and matt surface can be polished mechanically with diamond cutters. Polishing large surfaces is to be avoided, since it is very difficult to work perfectly and machining marks often remain visible. If the cut is curved, flame polishing is recommended.
Prior to shaping, it is necessary to pre-dry the extrusion decoracryl in order to avoid the formation of bubbles in the finished product at the folds. The need for drying arises because a small amount of moisture can penetrate the material during storage or transportation. Carry out drying either in a convection drying chamber with hot air circulation (at 75-80 ° C for 1-2 hours per mm of thickness. normally 24 hours for each mm of thickness when the moisture content is high) or by infrared radiation at 75-80°C for 1-2 hours for each mm of thickness.
If the finished piece does not conform to the desired shape, it can be reheated and then corrected. Injection-molded decoracryl has a “memory” of the mold and can easily return to its original position when reheated. With extruded decoracryl it is only possible if the material has not been subjected to stretching. Always remove the protective film from the cast decoracryl before heating and can be left on the extrusion.
The behavior of these materials during hot forming is also different. Cast decoracryl requires considerable pressure to deform, extrusion decoracryl is formed easily and without much effort (recommended temperature interval. 75-80°C (in a vacuum chamber); heating time. 3 minutes per 1 mm of material thickness). For heating cast decoracryl before shaping equipment is used that creates a uniform temperature field with a difference on the plane and thickness of the sheet of no more than 3 ° C. Casting decoracryl is heated for 3-4 min/mm thickness to a temperature of 95-100°C (in a vacuum chamber). Injection and extrusion decoracryl react differently to heating. Injection-molded decoracryl can be shrunk evenly by a maximum of 2%, the same in all directions (the sheet thickness increases accordingly). For extrusion decoracryl. from 3 to 6% in the extrusion direction and 1-2% in the transverse direction (for a sheet of 2 m x 3 m extrusion direction is the side of 3 m). Casting decoracryl easily tolerates non-uniformity of heating in 10-15°C (overheated castable plexiglass, in contrast to extrusion, does not crack and does not burst when deformed), in the case of extrusion, the difference in temperature of heating may lead to significant stresses in the material.
For forming or bending Anli decor panels, a matrix must be prepared in advance, t.е. the shape we want to give to the material.
Then in the vacuum room, after the heat treatment, place the material on the die and give the desired shape. Let the material cool down, while maintaining the desired shape.
Temperature of heating, °C
Heating time by thickness
If it is necessary to bend a flat sheet in a straight line, it is sufficient to locally heat the plastic along the axis of the bend with one or more straight heating elements, such as nichrome wire.
Moulds (dies and punches) are made of different materials: wood, plaster, aluminum, steel. Forming in the hot state can be carried out in simple ways, for example, by placing the plastic after heating on a convex or concave mold, where it acquires its shape under its own weight. The plastic can also be shaped by free drawing in a vacuum-tight chamber and by free blowing with compressed air, with or without the aid of moulds.
To avoid internal stresses, cooling must be as continuous and uniform as possible. For better preservation of the imprinted shape and to avoid deformation, the product should be left on the die until it cools down to a temperature of 60-70 ° C. Moulded parts must be thermally conditioned before interacting with solvents, paints or self-adhesive film in order to reduce stresses.